1. Calder, PC (2012) Mechanisms of action of (n-3) fatty acids. J Nutr 142, 592S–599S.
2. Calder, PC (2015) Functional roles of fatty acids and their effects on human health. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 39, 1 Suppl., 18S–32S.
3. Djousse, L, Akinkuolie, AO, Wu, JH, et al. (2012) Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: a meta-analysis. Clin Nutr 31, 846–853.
4. Caslake, MJ, Miles, EA, Kofler, BM, et al. (2008) Effect of sex and genotype on cardiovascular biomarker response to fish oils: the FINGEN Study. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 618–629.
5. Calder, PC (2018) Very long-chain n-3 fatty acids and human health: fact, fiction and the future. Proc Nutr Soc 77, 52–72.
6. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2004) Advice on Fish Consumption: Benefits and Risks. London: TSO.
7. Kris-Etherton, PM, Harris, WS & Appel, LJ (2002) Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 Fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106, 2747–2757.
8. Browning, LM, Walker, CG, Mander, AP, et al. (2012) Incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids into lipid pools when given as supplements providing doses equivalent to typical intakes of oily fish. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 748–758.
9. Bakewell, L, Burdge, GC & Calder, PC (2007) Polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in young men and women consuming their habitual diets. Br J Nutr 96, 93.
10. Crowe, FL, Skeaff, CM, Green, TJ, et al. (2008) Serum n-3 long-chain PUFA differ by sex and age in a population-based survey of New Zealand adolescents and adults. Br J Nutr 99, 168–174.
11. Walker, CG, Browning, LM, Mander, AP, et al. (2014) Age and sex differences in the incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma fractions, cells and adipose tissue in humans. Br J Nutr 111, 679–689.
12. Thifault, E, Cormier, H, Bouchard-Mercier, A, et al. (2013) Effects of age, sex, body mass index and APOE genotype on cardiovascular biomarker response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 6, 73–82.
13. Giltay, EJ, Gooren, LJ, Toorians, AW, et al. (2004) Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations are higher in women than in men because of estrogenic effects. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1167–1174.
14. Chouinard-Watkins, R, Conway, V, Minihane, AM, et al. (2015) Interaction between BMI and APOE genotype is associated with changes in the plasma long-chain-PUFA response to a fish-oil supplement in healthy participants. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 505–513.
15. Hodson, L, Skeaff, CM & Fielding, BA (2008) Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake. Prog Lipid Res 47, 348–380.
16. Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane, Stanley GH (1956) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
17. Fisk, HL, West, AL, Childs, CE, et al. (2014) The use of gas chromatography to analyze compositional changes of fatty acids in rat liver tissue during pregnancy. J Vis Exp 85, e51445.
18. Calder, PC (2014) Very long chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and human health. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 116, 1280–1300.
19. Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K & Drevon, CA (1996) Very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids as biomarkers for intake of fish and n-3 fatty acid concentrates. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 305–311.
20. Harris, WS, Pottala, JV, Sands, SA, et al. (2007) Comparison of the effects of fish and fish-oil capsules on the n-3 fatty acid content of blood cells and plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr
21. Visioli, F, Rise, P, Marangoni, F, et al. (2004) The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels. Oléagineux, Corps gras Lipides 11, 116–117.
22. Calder, PC (2004)
n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clin Sci (Lond) 107, 1–11.
23. Lee, JH, O’Keefe, JH, Lavie, CJ, et al. (2009) Omega-3 fatty acids: cardiovascular benefits, sources and sustainability. Nat Rev Cardiol 6, 753–758.
24. Arab, L (2003) Biomarkers of fat and fatty acid intake. J Nutr 133, 9255–9325.
25. Harris, WS, Sands, SA, Windsor, SL, et al. (2004) Omega-3 fatty acids in cardiac biopsies from heart transplantation patients: correlation with erythrocytes and response to supplementation. Circulation 110, 1645–1649.
26. Plourde, M, Chouinard-Watkins, R, Vandal, M, et al. (2011) Plasma incorporation, apparent retroconversion and beta-oxidation of 13C-docosahexaenoic acid in the elderly. Nutr Metab (Lond) 8, 5.
27. Rees, D, Miles, EA, Banerjee, T, et al. (2006) Dose-related effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on innate immune function in healthy humans: a comparison of young and older men. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 331–342.
28. Cunnane, SC, Chouinard-Watkins, R, Castellano, CA, et al. (2013) Docosahexaenoic acid homeostasis, brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease: can we reconcile the evidence? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 88, 61–70.
29. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Epidemiology Council Committee (1979) Plasma lipid distributions in selected North American populations: the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation 60, 427–439.
30. Schaefer, EJ, Lamon-Fava, S, Cohn, SD, et al. (1994) Effects of age, gender, and menopausal status on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in the Framingham Offspring Study. J Lipid Res 35, 779–792.
31. Stahl, A, Evans, JG, Pattel, S, et al. (2002) Insulin causes fatty acid transport protein translocation and enhanced fatty acid uptake in adipocytes. Dev Cell 2, 477–488.
32. Sorci-Thomas, M, Babiak, J & Rudel, LL (1989) Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes transacylation of intact cholesteryl esters. J Biol Chem 265, 2665–2670.
33. Micallef, M, Munro, I, Phang, M, et al. (2009) Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are negatively associated with obesity. Br J Nutr 102, 1370–1374.
34. Jensen, MD, Haymond, MW, Rizza, RA, et al. (1989) Influence of body fat distribution on free fatty acid metabolism in obesity. J Clin Invest 83, 11681173.
35. Klein-Platat, C, Drai, J, Oujaa, M, et al. (2005) Plasma fatty acid composition is associated with the metabolic syndrome and low-grade inflammation in overweight adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 1178–1184.
36. Plourde, M, Chouinard-Watkins, R, Rioux-Perreault, C, et al. (2014) Kinetics of 13C-DHA before and during fish-oil supplementation in healthy older individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 105–112.
37. Gregg, RE, Zech, LA, Schaefer, EJ, et al. (1986) Abnormal in vivo metabolism of apolipoprotein E4 in humans. J Clin Invest 78, 815–821.
38. Soerensen, M, Dato, S, Tan, Q, et al. (2013) Evidence from case-control and longitudinal studies supports associations of genetic variation in APOE, CETP, and IL6 with human longevity. Age (Dordr) 35, 487–500.
39. Bennet, AM, Di Angelantonio, E, Ye, Z, et al. (2007) Association of apolipoprotein E genotypes with lipid levels and coronary risk. JAMA 298, 1300–1311.
40. Bertram, L, McQueen, MB, Mullin, K, et al. (2007) Systematic meta-analyses of Alzheimer disease genetic association studies: the AlzGene database. Nat Genet 39, 17–23.
41. Chouinard-Watkins, R, Rioux-Perreault, C, Fortier, M, et al. (2013) Disturbance in uniformly 13C-labelled DHA metabolism in elderly human subjects carrying the apoE epsilon4 allele. Br J Nutr 110, 1751–1759.
42. Nguyen, LN, Ma, D, Shui, G, et al. (2014) Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Nature 509, 503–506.
43. Pawlosky, R, Hibbeln, J, Lin, Y, et al. (2003)
n-3 Fatty acid metabolism in women. Br J Nutr 90, 993–995.
44. Katan, MB, Deslypere, JP, van Birgelen, AP, et al. (1997) Kinetics of the incorporation of dietary fatty acids into serum cholesteryl esters, erythrocyte membranes, and adipose tissue: an 18-month controlled study. J Lipid Res 38, 2012–2022.
45. Childs, CE, Kew, S, Finnegan, YE, et al. (2014) Increased dietary α-linolenic acid has sex-specific effects upon eicosapentaenoic acid status in humans: re-examination of data from a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Nutr J 13, 113.
46. Childs, CE, Romeu-Nadal, M, Burdge, GC, et al. (2008) Gender differences in the n-3 fatty acid content of tissues. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 19–27.
47. Metherel, AH, Armstrong, JM, Patterson, AC, et al. (2009) Assessment of blood measures of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with acute fish oil supplementation and washout in men and women. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 23–29.
48. Patterson, AC, Chalil, A, Aristizabal Henao, JJ, et al. (2015) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid blood biomarkers increase linearly in men and women after tightly controlled intakes of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/d of EPA+DHA. Nutr Res 35, 1040–1051.