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II. Finds Reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme

  • John Pearce (a1) and Sally Worrell (a2)


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1 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2006 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 38 (2007), 303.

2 Pearce, J. and Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2016 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 48 (2017), 427. The quantities of individual finds can be calculated by manipulating the data available on the PAS website (

3 Hoards continue to be published in full through the Coin Hoards of Roman Britain series, as well as the individual coins being reported on the PAS database. PAS hoard data have been used for the now complete collaborative project on hoarding between the British Museum and the University of Leicester ‘Crisis or Continuity. Hoarding in Iron Age and Roman Britain with special reference to the 3rd century AD’ ( and the ongoing ‘Oxford Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire’ project (

4 Robbins, K., ‘Balancing the scales: exploring the variable effects of collection bias on data collected by the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Landscapes 14 (2013), 5472.

5 Moorhead, S. and Walton, P., ‘Coins recorded with the Portable Antiquities Scheme: a summary’, Britannia 42 (2011), 432–7; Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (note 2, 2017), 428–9.

6 A selection of the most important coins is published annually in the British Numismatic Journal by S. Moorhead.

7 Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (note 2, 2017), 428–30.

8 Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (note 2, 2017), 430.

9 Work is currently in progress on documenting the assemblage, with a view to future publication in Britannia. A short recent paper provides a summary of the find: Adams, K., Henig, M. and Pearce, J., ‘A founder's hoard from near Gloucester’, Bulletin of the Association for Roman Archaeology (2018) 24, 7884. The inscription is included in Roger Tomlin's survey of inscriptions, see Tomlin, R.S.O., ‘Roman Britain in 2017. III. Inscriptions’, Britannia 49 (2018), No. 2.

10 The object descriptions present substantially revised versions of PAS database entries by the authors of this report. Further discussion of the form and significance of individual objects has also been added.

11 Throughout the year staff in the British Museum, in particular Richard Hobbs and Eleanor Ghey, have provided invaluable advice in the identification of individual objects. Our debt to Martin Henig will be apparent from the footnotes and we once again thank him for his generosity in discussing many of the artefacts published here, though any errors are of course our responsibility. Again too we express our thanks to Barry Burnham for reading and commenting on a draft.

12 Found by L. Ingledow. Recorded by D. Boughton, S. Worrell, M. Henig and J. Pearce.

13 Durham, E., ‘Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain’, Internet Archaeology 31 (2012),

14 The topknot is much better preserved, for example, on the Apollo figurine found in metal-detecting on the site of the roadside settlement at Hayton, E Yorks.; J. Pearce, ‘Leisure: religious items (votive)’, in P. Halkon, M. Millett and H. Woodhouse, Hayton., East Yorkshire. Archaeological Studies of the Iron Age and Roman Landscapes Vol. 1, Yorkshire Archaeological Reports 6 (2015), 125, RS 72.

15 Henig, M. and Munby, J., ‘Three bronze figurines’, Oxoniensia 38 (1973), 386–7, pl. xxx; M. Henig, The Art of Roman Britain (1995), 81–3, fig. 51 for the London figurine.

16 A further head, possibly from a figurine, from Etchilhampton, Wilts. (WILT-D3244C), may represent an additional recent discovery of a more stylised image of the god with a laurel(?) wreath.

17 Found by A. Milnes. Identified by E. Durham, recorded by B. Jones.

18 Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 3.29. PAS examples are documented from Folkestone (KENT-178176) and Kirton in Lindsey, Lincs. (LVPL-1F8252); Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2014. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 46 (2015), 365–8, no. 10.

19 G. Faider-Feytmans, Les Bronzes romains de Belgique (1979), 208, no. B11, pl. 193.

20 Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 2.2.3.

21 Found by D. Mazur. Recorded by T. Gilmore.

22 E.M. Jope, Early Celtic Art in the British Isles (2000), 285. M. MacGregor, Early Celtic Art in North Britain (1976), 37–8. A study of these objects is currently in progress for an MA thesis by Jane Barker, University of Manchester.

23 Adams, K., Boughton, D., Byard, A., Griffiths, R., Phelps, M., Williams, D., Pearce, J. and Worrell, S., ‘From figurines to fob-danglers: recent Iron Age and Roman objects documented by the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Lucerna 49 (2015), 27.

24 Found by J. Sheppard. Identified by R. Griffiths.

25 Jope, op. cit. (note 22), 270, pl. 182i.

26 ESS-BD8454. Wise, P., ‘Recent finds from Essex reported to Colchester Museums 1998–2000’, Essex Archaeology and History 33 (2002), 385–6, with further references.

27 Found by W. Carlile. Identified and recorded by M. Foreman, K. Leahy and J. Pearce. With regard to the findspot, it is important to note that this object belongs to the Carlile Collection, accumulated between c. 1980 and 2010 during metal-detecting mainly in South Ferriby and also in Barton upon Humber, later acquired for North Lincolnshire Museum. The specific findspots of individual objects in the collection cannot be more closely localised.

28 Cool, H., ‘Roman metal hair pins from southern Britain’, Archaeological Journal 147 (1990), 172, fig. 13 (Group 27).

29 We thank Michael Marshall for his information on the examples from the Bloomberg excavation, publication of which is in preparation, along with a review of the evidence for their mooted functions as hair ornaments, textile implements or votives: M. Marshall and A. Wardle, Roman Artefacts from the Middle Walbrook Valley: Glass, Small Finds, Coins and Textiles from the Bloomberg Excavations 2010–14 (in prep.), small find nos S220–S222.

30 Cool, op. cit. (note 28), 172; J. Creighton, ‘The Humber frontier in the first century AD’, in S. Ellis and D.R. Crowther (eds), Humber Perspectives. A Region through the Ages (1990), 182–99.

31 Found by P. King. Identified by S. Worrell.

32 Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 3.20.

33 Henig, M. and Paddock, J.M., ‘Metal figurines in the Corinium Museum, Cirencester’, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society 111 (1993), 87–8, no. 5, fig. 2.

34 Henig, op. cit. (note 15), 81–2, fig. 50.

35 Found by S. Joynes. Identified by A. Willis. We are grateful to Martin Henig for discussion of this piece. He prefers to interpret it as a bust attached to furniture rather than as a free-standing image.

36 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2010. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 42 (2011), 418–19, no. 14.

37 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2013. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 45 (2014), 404, no. 3. See P. Coombe and J. Pearce, ‘A fragment of a monumental bronze statue, Lincoln’ (in prep.), for updated references to other fragments.

38 Henig, op. cit. (note 15), 70–1, figs 39–40.

39 Market Rasen (LIN-B8FA27); Capel St Mary (ESS-B39770); Worrell, S.Roman Britain in 2007. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 39 (2008), 363–4, no. 13.

40 Found by D. Pegg. Identified by M. Henig and A. Rohde. Recorded by A. Rohde.

41 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2012. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 44 (2013), 349–50, no. 2, with further references; Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 3.7, 4.4.1.

42 A. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz 1. Augst und das Gebiet der Colonia Augusta Raurica (1977), 68–9, no. 68, Tafn 69 and 70.

43 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 41, 2013), 349–50, no. 2; H. Menzel, Die römischen Bronzen aus Deutschland III. Bonn (1986), 19–20, no. 41.

44 Found by Mr Wai Ming Chan. Identified and recorded by K. Adams and M. Henig. Martin Henig kindly supplied references to further examples.

45 Zadoks-Jitta, A., ‘The Poseidon Isthmios by Lysippos’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 57.2 (1937), 224–6, pl. viii, discussing a statuette in a Dutch collection said to be from the Adriatic.

46 ibid.

47 A. Leibundgut, Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz. III. Westschweiz Bern und Wallis (1980), 18–19, no. 9, Taf. 14, a figurine from Vevey, with discussion of many other examples.

48 M. Henig, A Corpus of Roman Engraved Gemstones from British Sites, BAR British Series 8 (3rd edn, 2007), 94, nos 18–19, pl. I, notes two glass gems with the device, one from Woodeaton. Leibundgut, op. cit. (note 47), notes further examples in diverse materials.

49 cf. examples collected by M. Henig, Art of Roman Britain (1995), 93–7.

50 Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 3.16.

51 R.S.O. Tomlin, Britannia Romana. Roman Inscriptions and Roman Britain (2018), 363.

52 Found by C. Emmett. Identified by D. Williams and R. Webley. Recorded by M. Broomfield.

53 D. Mackreth, Brooches in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain (2001), vol. I, 179, Continental plate brooches unclassified, vol. II, pl. 122. Martin Henig suggests that the juxtaposition of a face reminiscent of Julio-Claudian portraits with marine motifs may have had a more specific contemporary resonance, perhaps a memento of the conquest of Britain in a.d. 43.

54 U. Boelicke, Die Fibeln aus dem Areal der Colonia Ulpia Traiana, Xantener Berichte 10 (2002), 127–8, no. 1110, Taf. 52.

55 Identified by M. Henig. Recorded by A. Byard.

56 W. Manning, Catalogue of the Romano-British Iron Tools, Fittings and Weapons in the British Museum (1985), 11–12, no. A39, pl. 6, from Colchester, with further references; H. Eckardt, Writing and Power in the Roman World (2017), 33–4; R.S.O. Tomlin, ‘Writing and communication’, in L. Allason-Jones (ed.), Artefacts in Roman Britain. Their Purpose and Use (2011), 138.

57 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2004. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 36 (2005), 463–5, no. 15.

58 Martin Henig and Paul Booth, pers. comm.; H. Eckardt and N. Crummy, Styling the Body in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain: A Contextual Approach to Toilet Instruments, Monographies Instrumentum 36 (2008), 126, fig. 66 (nail-cleaner); Hawkes, S.C. and Dunning, G.C., ‘Soldiers and settlers in Britain, fourth to fifth century: with a catalogue of animal-ornamented buckles and related belt-fittings’, Medieval Archaeology 5 (1961), e.g. 24, fig. 8 (strap end), 42, fig. 13g (belt buckle plate).

59 Found by M. Hodges. Recorded by R. Trevaskus and A. Byard.

60 J. Farley and F. Hunter (eds), Celts: Art and Identity (2015), 160–1, fig. 149; M.C. Bishop and J.C.N. Coulston, Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome (1993), 191, fig. 124.3.

61 Pearce, J. and Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2015. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 47 (2016), 375–6, no. 13.

62 Found by C. Cuddon. Recorded by A. Byard.

63 Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 3.15, 4.4.1. For PAS examples, Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 41, 2013), 355, no. 8; Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 18, 2015), 369–70, no. 11; Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (note 61, 2016), 368–9, no. 5, with further references.

64 Found by P. Hammond. Identified by M. Henig and S. Worrell. Recorded by A. Bliss.

65 Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (note 61, 2016), 374, no. 11. A. Esposito, Performing the Ritual. A Study of Religious Performers and their Activities in Roman Britain, unpub. doctoral thesis, King's College London (2017).

66 For further examples of griffins: Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (note 2, 2017), 432–3, no. 3, Thwing, E. Yorks; Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2008. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 40 (2009), 298, no. 15, Orston, Notts. (DENO-CD8FB3), a possible vessel mount, with further references.

67 Found by J. Greaves. Recorded by J. Shoemark.

68 Boucher, T., ‘Un nouveau type d'attaches romaines: les appliques à anneau pivotant et tenons en “T”’, Bulletin Instrumentum 28 (2008), 21–7. PAS examples include objects from Heacham, Norfolk (NMS-811895), Binham, Norfolk (NMS-410B73), Clothall, Herts. (BH-F9B471), Winterborne St Martin, Dorset (SUR-67CFC7), Kington St Michael, Wilts. (WILT-B03D73), and Radwinter, Essex (ESS-7E7BB6).

69 Found by P. Thrower. Identified and recorded by A. Rogerson.

70 S. James, Excavations at Dura-Europos, Final Report VII, the Arms and Armour, and other Military Equipment (2004), 52, 62 and 72–5, cat. nos 17–29; Oldenstein, J., ‘Zur Ausrüstung römischer Auxiliareinheiten’, Berichten des Römisch-Germanischen Kommision des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 57 (1976), 234–9, Tafn 87, 89–90; Bishop and Coulston, op. cit. (note 60), 159, fig. 100.

71 Bishop and Coulston, op. cit. (note 60), pl. 3

72 Found by M. Yates, recorded and identified by A. Bliss.

73 Feugère, M., ‘Figuratives: nouvelles formes de fibules skeuomorphes, anthropomorphes et zoomorphes d'époque romaine’. Bulletin Instrumentum 30 (2009), 34–7. Artefacts, FiB 4513 (Accessed 18.04.18).

74 Found by J. Mendes. Recorded by C. Morgan.

75 See No. 8 above, figurine from Mansfield Woodhouse (DENO-1271B3).

76 Found by B. Purpura, identified and recorded by K. Marsden and S. Worrell.

77 E. Riha, Die römischen Fibeln aus Augst und Kaiseraugst, Forschungen in Augst 3 (1979), 207, no. 1728, Taf. 67; Artefacts, FIB-4624: Fibule zoomorphe, groupe: homme sur panthère ( (Accessed 20/04/2018).

78 M. Feugère, Les Fibules en Gaule Meridionale (1985), 386, fig. 58, nos 6a and 6b. For colour images of unprovenanced examples, see M. Tache, Fibules antiques celtiques, romaines, mérovingiennes (2015), 48, Planche MTF 126; Artefacts, FIB-4173 ( (Accessed 10/05/2018).

79 Found by R. Potter. Identified and recorded by P. Walton.

80 Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 3.29; Kaufmann-Heinemann, op. cit. (note 42), 60–2, no. 59, Taf. 59; A. Leibundgut, Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz II. Avenches (1976), 42–3, nos 23–4, Tafn 26–9; Faider-Feytmans, op. cit. (note 19), 84–5, no. 81, pl. 51, Liberchies; Menzel, op. cit. (note 43), 37, nos 78–9, Taf. 44, Cologne and Zülpich.

81 Found by G. Potter. Recorded by C. Haywood Trevarthen, R. Henry and J. Pearce.

82 V. Schaltenbrand-Obrecht, Stilus. Kulturhistorische, typologisch-chronologische und technologische Untersuchungen an römischen Schreibgriffeln von Augusta Raurica und weitere Fundorten, Forschungen in Augst 45 (2012), Band 1, 186–7, Band 2, 473–4, nos AR 922–925, Taf. 62; Manning, op. cit. (note 56), 85, fig. 24.

83 A. Mullen, ‘Sociolinguistics’, in M. Millett, L. Revell and A. Moore (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain (2016), 579–80; Pearce, J., ‘Archaeology, writing tablets and literacy in Roman Britain’, Gallia 61 (2004), 4351.

84 Found by G. Bates. Identified by M. Henig. Recorded by R. Henry.

85 Gerrard, J. and Henig, M., ‘Brancaster type signet rings. A study in the material culture of sealing documents in late antique Britain’, Bonner Jahrbücher 216 (2016), 78.

86 An example from Chedworth has also been published in this journal: Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 37, 2014), 427–8, no. 29.

87 Found by D. Clarke. Recorded by A. Bolton.

88 Durham, op. cit. (note 13), 3.12, 4.4.1.; L. Pitts, Roman Bronze Figurines from the Civitates of the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes, BAR British Series 60 (1979), 79–80.

89 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 41, 2013), 359, no. 12 and Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 37, 2014), 420, no. 21, with references to further PAS examples.

90 Found by M. Rae. Identified and recorded by N. Derks and J. Pearce. The tank has been donated to the Wiltshire Museum (Acc. No. DZSWS:2018.1).

91 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 37, 2014), 420–1, no. 22.

92 Crerar, B., ‘Contextualising Romano-British lead tanks: a study in design, destruction and deposition’, Britannia 43 (2012), 135–66; Guy, C.J., ‘Circular lead tanks in Britain’, Britannia 12 (1981), 271–6. (28 tabulated by Crerar, 3 additional finds documented by the PAS.)

93 Crerar, op. cit. (note 92), 136; Guy, op. cit. (note 92), 273; S. Malone, ‘A group of Romano-British lead tanks from Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire’, in S. Malone and M. Williams (eds), Rumours of Roman Finds: Recent Work on Roman Lincolnshire (2010), 138–42.

94 On the better preserved Icklingham tank (330 mm high) the rim is a few centimetres above this projecting vertical strap (British Museum acc. no. 1946, 0204.1). If the Preshute decoration was similarly arranged then the rim of the vessel was a few centimetres higher than the top of these vertical straps and is not preserved here.

95 RIB II.2.2416.8, East Stoke, Notts.; Tomlin, R.S.O. and Hassall, M.W.C., ‘Roman Britain in 1999. II. Inscriptions’, Britannia 31 (2000), 442–3, no. 42, Flawborough, Lincs.

96 M. Nagy, ‘A lead tank from late Roman Pannonia’, in C. Franek, S. Lamm, T. Neuhauser, B. Porod and K Zöhrere (eds), Thiasos. Festschrift für Erwin Pochmarski zum 65. Geburtstag (2008), 677–83; Merten, H., ‘Drei römische Bleiplatten mit Jagdfries im rheinischen Landesmuseum Trier’, Trierer Zeitschrift 50 (1987), 255–67.

97 Crerar, op. cit. (note 92), 150–2; Martin Henig suggests that the frequent damage may have been to prevent polluting re-use of fonts.


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