Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-6f8dk Total loading time: 0.779 Render date: 2021-02-26T02:16:44.039Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Changes over time in family members of adults with mild traumatic brain injury

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 October 2019

Kelly Jones
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
Alice Theadom
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
Philip Prah
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
Nicola Starkey
Affiliation:
School of Psychology, Division of Arts, Law, Psychology & Social Sciences, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
Suzanne Barker-Collo
Affiliation:
School of Psychology, Tamaki Campus, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Shanthi Ameratunga
Affiliation:
School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Valery L. Feigin
Affiliation:
National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, School of Public Health & Psychosocial Studies, Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective:

The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) extends beyond the person who was injured. Family caregivers of adults with moderate to severe TBI frequently report increased burden, stress and depression. Few studies have examined the well-being of family members in the mild TBI population despite the latter representing up to 95% of all TBIs.

Methods:

Five areas of well-being were examined in 99 family members (including parents, partners, siblings, other relatives, adult children, friends or neighbours) of adults (aged ≥16 years) with mild TBI. At 6- and 12-month post-injury, family members completed the Bakas Caregiver Outcomes Scale, Short Form-36 Health Survey, EQ-5D-3L, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Outcomes and change over time and associated factors were examined.

Results:

At 6 months, group mean scores for health-related quality of life for mental and physical components and overall health status were similar to the New Zealand (NZ) population. Mean scores for sleep, anxiety and depression were below clinically significant thresholds. From 6 to 12 months, there were significant improvements in Bakas Caregiver Outcomes Scale scores by 2.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.72–4.49), health-related quality of life (mental component) and EQ-5D-3L overall health (P = 0.01). Minimally clinically important differences were observed in overall health, anxiety, health-related quality of life and depression at 12 months. Female family members reported significant improvements in physical health over time, and more positive life changes were reported by those caring for males with TBI.

Conclusions:

The findings suggest diminished burden over time for family members of adults with mild TBI.

Type
Articles
Copyright
© Australasian Society for the Study of Brain Impairment 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

BIONIC Study Group members listed below

References

Aitken, M. E., Mele, N., & Barrett, K. W. (2004). Recovery of injured children: Parent perspectives on family needs. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 567573. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2003.06.018.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, M. I., & Simpson, G. K. (2013). The impact of neurobehavioral impairment on family functioning and psychological well-being of male versus female caregivers of relatives with severe traumatic brain injury: Multigroup analysis. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(6), 453463.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, M. I., Simpson, G. K., & Daher, M. (2017). A predictive model of resilience among family caregivers supporting relatives with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Australia: A structural equation modelling approach. Brain Injury, 31(6–7), 815816. doi:10.1080/02699052.2017.1312145.Google Scholar
Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Quijano, M. C., Aponte, M., Cuervo, M. T., Nicholls, E., Rogers, H. L., & Kreutzer, J. (2010). Family needs in caregivers of individuals with traumatic brain injury from Colombia, South America. Brain Injury, 24(7–8), 10171026. doi:10.3109/02699052.2010.490516.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Armstrong, K., & Kerns, K. A. (2002). The assessment of parent needs following paediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 5(3), 149160. doi:10.1080/1363849021000039353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1997). 1995 National Health Survey SF-36 population norms. Canberra: ABS.Google Scholar
Bakas, T., Champion, V., Perkins, S. M., Farran, C. J., & Williams, L. S. (2006). Psychometric testing of the revised 15-item Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale. Nursing Research, 55(5), 346355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baker, A., Barker, S., Sampson, A., & Martin, C. (2017). Caregiver outcomes and interventions: A systematic scoping review of the traumatic brain injury and spinal cord literature. Clinical Rehabilitation, 31(1), 4560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barker-Collo, S. L., Wilde, N. J., & Feigin, V. L. (2009). Trends in head injury incidence in New Zealand: A hospital-based study from 1997/1998 to 2003/2004. Neuroepidemiology, 32(1), 3239. doi:10.1159/000170090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnfied, T. V., & Leathem, J. M. (1998). Incidence and outcomes of traumatic brain injury and substance abuse in New Zealand prison population. Brain Injury, 12(6), 455466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayen, E., Pradat-Diehl, P., Jourdan, C., Ghout, I., Bosserelle, V., Azerad, S., … Steering Committee of the PariS-TBI Study. (2013). Predictors of informal care burden 1 year after a severe traumatic brain injury: Results from the PariS-TBI study. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 28(6), 408418. doi:10.1097/HTR.0b013e31825413cf.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berglund, E., Lytsy, P., & Westerling, R. (2015). Health and wellbeing in informal caregivers and non-caregivers: A comparative cross-sectional study of the Swedish general population. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 13, 109. doi:10.1186/s12955-015-0309-2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bhandari, N. J., Jain, T., Marolda, C., & ZuWallack, R. L. (2013). Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation results in clinically meaningful improvements in anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 33(2), 123127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): A new instrument for psychiatric research and practice. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Cancelliere, C., Côté, P., Hincapie, C. A., Kristman, V. L., … Hartvigsen, J. (2014). Systematic review of the prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury in adults: Cognitive, psychiatric, and mortality outcomes: Results of the international collaboration on mild traumatic brain injury prognosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 95(3 Suppl), S152–S173. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2013.08.300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Holm, L., Kraus, J., & Corondo, V. G. (2004). Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: The WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(Suppl), 113125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chwalisz, K. (1992). Perceived stress and caregiver burden after brain injury: A theoretical integration. Rehabilitation Psychology, 37, 189203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dannette, M., Fergusson, D. M., & Boden, J. M. (2008). Ethnic identity and intimate partner violence in a New Zealand birth cohort. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, (33), 126145.Google Scholar
Davis, L., Sander, A., Struchen, M., Sherer, M., Nakase-Richardson, R., & Malec, J. (2009). Medical and psychosocial predictors of caregiver distress and perceived burden following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24(3), 145154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delmonico, R., Theodore, B., Sandel, E., Armstrong, M. A., & Camica, M. (2017). Prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders following mild traumatic brain injury: A retrospective cohort study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98(10), e96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doser, K., & Norup, A. (2016). Caregiver burden in Danish family members of patients with severe brain injury: The chronic phase. Brain Injury, 30(3), 334642. doi:10.3109/02699052.2015.1114143CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elder, H. (2012). An examination of Maori tamariki (child) and taiohi (adolescent) traumatic brain injury within a global cultural context. Australasian Psychiatry, 20(1), 2023.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emanuelson, I., Andersson Holmkvist, E., Bjorklund, R., & Stalhammar, D. (2003). Quality of life and post-concussion symptoms in adults after mild traumatic brain injury: A population-based study in western Sweden. Acta Neurol Scand, 108(5), 332338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ennis, N., Rosenbloom, B. N., Canzian, S., & Topolovec-Vranic, J. (2013). Depression and anxiety in parent versus spouse caregivers of adult patients with traumatic brain injury: A systematic review. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 23(1), 118. doi:10.1080/09602011.2012.712871.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ergh, T. C., Hanks, R. A., Rapport, L. J., & Coleman, R. D. (2003). Social support moderates caregiver life satisfaction following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(8), 10901101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ergh, T. C., Rapport, L. J., Coleman, R. D., & Hanks, R. A. (2002). Predictors of caregiver and family functioning following traumatic brain injury: Social support moderates caregiver distress. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 17(2), 155174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
EuroQol Group. (1990). EuroQol-a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy, 16(3), 199208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
EuroQol Group. (2004). Measuring self-reported population health: An international perspective based on EQ-5D (A. Szende & Williams, A., Eds.). EuroQol Group.Google Scholar
Feigin, V. L., Theadom, A., Barker-Collo, S., Starkey, N. J., McPherson, K., Kahan, M., … BIONIC Study Group. (2013). Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: A population-based study. The Lancet Neurology, 12(1), 5364. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70262-4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Findler, M., Cantor, J., Haddad, L., Gordon, W., & Ashman, T. (2001). The reliability and validity of the SF-36 health survey questionnaire for use with individuals with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 15(8), 715723.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanks, R. A., Rapport, L. J., & Vangel, S. (2007). Caregiving appraisal after traumatic brain injury: The effects of functional status, coping style, social support and family functioning. NeuroRehabilitation, 22(1), 4352.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hasson-Ohayon, I., Goldzweig, G., Sela-Oren, T., Pizem, N., Bar-Sela, G., & Wolf, I. (2015). Attachment style, social support and finding meaning among spouses of colorectal cancer patients: Gender differences. Palliative & Supportive Care, 13(3), 527535. doi:10.1017/S1478951513000242.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hawley, C. A. (2003). Reported problems and their resolution following mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury amongst children and adolescents in the UK. Brain Injury, 17(2), 105129. doi:10.1080/0269905021000010131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holder, Y., Peden, M., Krug, E., Lund, J., Gururaj, G., & Kobusingye, O. (2001). Injury surveillance guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
Hughes, C. M., McCullough, C. A., Bradbury, I., Boyde, C., Hume, D., Yuan, J., … McDonough, S. M. (2009). Acupunture and reflexology for insomnia: a feasibility study. Acupunture in Medicine, 27, 163168. doi:10.1136/aim.2009.000760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jansen, P., Bacal, K., & Crengle, S. (2008). He Ritenga Whakaaro: Mâori experiences of health services. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland: Mauriora Associates.Google Scholar
Katz, S., Kravetz, S., & Grynbaum, F. (2005). Wives’ coping flexibility, time since husbands’ injury and the perceived burden of wives of men with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 19(1), 5966. doi:10.1080/02699050410001719970.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Königs, M., Engenhorst, P. J., & Oosterlaan, J. (2016). Intelligence after traumatic brain injury: Meta-analysis of outcomes and prognosis. European Journal of Neurology, 23(1), 2129. doi:ezproxy.aut.ac.nz/10.1111/ene.1271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kratz, A. L., Sander, A. M., Brickell, T. A., Lange, R. T., & Carlozzi, N. E. (2017). Traumatic brain injury caregivers: A qualitative analysis of spouse and parent perspectives on quality of life. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 27(1), 1637.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kreutzer, J. S., Rapport, L. J., Marwitz, J. H., Harrison-Felix, C., Hart, T., Glenn, M., & Hammond, F. (2009). Caregivers’ well-being after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter prospective investigation. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 90(6), 939946. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2009.01.010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lerdal, A., Slåtten, K., Saghaug, E., Grov, E. K., Normann, A. P., Lee, K. A., … Gay, C. L. (2016). Sleep among bereaved caregivers of patients admitted to hospice: A 1-year longitudinal pilot study. BMJ Open, 6(1), e009345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, Q., & Loke, A. Y. (2013). A spectrum of hidden morbidities among spousal caregivers for patients with cancer, and differences between the genders: A review of the literature. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 17(5), 578587. doi:10.1016/j.ejon.2013.01.007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, W., Zhu, J., Liu, J., & Guo, Q. (2015). Psychological state and needs of family member caregivers for victims of traumatic brain injury: A cross-sectional descriptive study. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 2(3), 231236. doi:10.1016/j.ijnss.2015.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, N., Johnson, J., & Coons, S. (2010). Using instrument-defined health state transitions to estimate minimally important differences for four preference-based health-related quality of life instruments. Medical Care, 48, 365371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maas, A. I., Menon, D. K., Adelson, P. D., Andel, N., Bell, M. J., Belli, A., … InTBIR Participants and Investigators. (2017). Traumatic brain injury: Integrated approaches to improve prevention, clinical care, and research. The Lancet Neurology Commission, 16(12), 9871048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madsen, T., Erlangsen, E., & Orlovska, S. (2018). Association between traumatic brain injury and risk of suicide. JAMA, 320(6), 580588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manskow, U. S., Friborgc, O., Røed, C., Brainef, M., Damsgardb, E., & Ankea, A. (2017). Patterns of change and stability in caregiver burden and life satisfaction from 1 to 2 years after severe traumatic brain injury: A Norwegian longitudinal study. NeuroRehabilitation, 40(2), 211222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manskow, U. S., Sigurdardottir, S., Røe, C., Andelic, N., Skandsen, T., Damsgård, E., … Anke, A. (2015). Factors affecting caregiver burden one year after severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective nationwide multicenter study. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 30, 411423. doi:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsh, N. V., Kersel, D. A., Havill, J. H., & Sleigh, J. W. (1998). Caregiver burden at 6 months following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 12(3), 225–138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marsh, N. V., Kersel, D. A., Havill, J. H., & Sleigh, J. W. (2002). Caregiver burden during the year following severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(4), 434447. doi:10.1076/jcen.24.4.434.1030.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martin, C. D. (2000). More than work: Race and gender differences in caregiving burden. Journal of Family Issues, 21, 9861005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McAllister, S., Derrett, S., Audas, R., & Pau, C. (2012). Well-being of carers of injured individuals from a prospective cohort study in New Zealand. Australasian Epidemiologist, 19(2), 2226.Google Scholar
McInnes, K., Friesen, C. L., MacKenzie, D. E., Westwood, D. A., & Boe, S. G. (2017). Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and chronic cognitive impairment: A scoping review. PLOS One, 12(4), e0174847.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ministry of Health. (1999). Taking the pulse, The 1996/97 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.Google Scholar
Minney, M. J., Roberts, R. M., Mathias, J. L., Raftos, J., & Kochar, A. (2019). Service and support needs following pediatric brain injury: Perspectives of children with mild traumatic brain injury and their parents. Brain Injury, 33(2), 168182. doi:10.1080/02699052.2018.1540794.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mollayeva, T., Thurairajah, P., Burton, K., Mollayeva, S., Shapiro, C. M., & Colantonio, A. (2016). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in clinical and non-clinical samples: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 25, 5273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, K. C. (2001). Psychological distress in carers of head injured individuals: The provision of written information. Brain Injury, 15, 239254.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mystakidou, K., Parpa, E., Panagiotou, I., Tsilika, E., Galanos, A., & Gouliamos, A. (2013). Caregivers’ anxiety and self-efficacy in palliative care. European Journal of Cancer Care, 22(2), 188195. doi:10.1111/ecc.12012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakken, N., Janssen, D. J., van Vliet, M., de Vries, G. J., Clappers-Gielen, G. A., Michels, A. J., … Spruit, M. A. (2017). Gender differences in partners of patients with COPD and their perceptions about the patients. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 12, 95104. doi:10.2147/COPD.S118871.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nonterah, C. W., Jensen, B. J., Perrin, P. B., Stevens, L. F., Cabrera, T. V., Jimenez-Maldonado, M., & Arango-Lasprilla, J. C. (2013). The influence of TBI impairments on family caregiver mental health in Mexico. Brain Injury, 27(11), 1287e1293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norup, A., Snipes, D. J., Siert, L., Mortensen, E. L., Perrin, P. B., & Arango-Lasprilla, J. C. (2013). Longitudinal trajectories of health related quality of life in Danish family members of individuals with severe brain injury. Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counselling, 19(2), 7183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oakley-Brown, M. A., Wells, J. E., & Scott, K. M. (2006). Te Rau Hinengaro. The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.Google Scholar
Omachi, T. A. (2011). Measures of sleep in rheumatologic diseases: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcome of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Arthritis Care & Research, 63(S11), S287S296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parag, V., Hackett, M. L., Yapa, C., Ngaire, K., McNaughton, H., Feigin, V. L., & Anderson, C. S. (2008). The impact of stroke on unpaid caregivers: Results from the Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study, 2002–2003. Cerebrovascular Disease, 25(6), 548–544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Powell, J. M., Fraser, R., Brockway, J. A., Temkin, N., & Bell, K. R. (2015). A telehealth approach to caregiver self-management following traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31(3), 180190. doi:10.1097/HTR.0000000000000167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, J. M., Wise, E. K., Brockway, J. A., Fraser, R., Temkin, N., & Bell, K. R. (2017). Characteristics and concerns of caregivers of adults with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 32(1), E33E41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Puhan, M. A., Frey, M., Buchi, S., & Schunemann, H. J. (2008). The minimal important difference of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 6, 46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qutub, K., Lacomis, D., Albert, S. M., & Feingold, E. (2014). Life factors affecting depression and burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caregivers. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener, 15(3–4), 292297. doi:10.3109/21678421.2014.886699.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rumpold, T., Schur, S., Amering, M., Kirchheiner, K., Masel, E. K., Watzke, H., & Schrank, B. (2015). Informal caregivers of advanced-stage cancer patients: Every second is at risk for psychiatric morbidity. Support Care Cancer, 24(5), 19751982. doi:10.1007/s00520-015-2987-z.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sady, M. D., Sander, A. M., Clark, A. N., Sherer, M., Nakase-Richardson, R., & Malec, J. F. (2010). Relationship of preinjury caregiver and family functioning to community integration in adults with traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(10), 15421550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Samsa, G., Edelman, D., Rothman, M. L., Williams, G. R., Lipscomb, J., & Matchar, D. (1999). Determining clinically important differences in health status measures: A general approach with illustration to the Health Utilities Index Mark II. Pharmacoeconomics, 15, 141155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sander, A. M., Maestas, K. L., Sherer, M., Malec, J. F., & Nakase-Richardson, R. (2012). Relationship of caregiver and family functioning to participation outcomes after postacute rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: A multicenter investigation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(5), 842848.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scholten, A. C., Haagsma, J. A., Andriessen, T. M. J. C., Vos, P. E., Steyerberg, E. W., van Beeck, E. F., & Polinder, S. (2015). Health-related quality of life after mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: Patterns and predictors of suboptimal functioning during the first year after injury. Injury, 46(4), 616624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schrank, B., Ebert-Vogel, A., Amering, M., Masel, E. K., Neubauer, M., Watzke, H., … Schur, S. (2016). Gender differences in caregiver burden and its determinants in family members of terminally ill cancer patients. Psycho-Oncology, 25(7), 808814. doi:10.1002/pon.4005.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, K. M., Sarfati, D., Tobias, M. I., & Haslett, S. J. (2000). A challenge to the cross-cultural validity of the SF-36 health survey: Factor structure in Maori, Pacific and New Zealand European ethnic groups. Social Science & Medicine, 21, 16551664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, K. M., Tobias, M. I., & Sarfati, D. (1999). SF-36 health survey reliability, validity and norms for New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 23(4), 401406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sharma, N., Chakrabarti, S., & Grover, S. (2016). Gender differences in caregiving among family – caregivers of people with mental illnesses. World Journal of Psychiatry, 6(1), 717. doi:10.5498/wjp.v6.i1.7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simpson, G., & Jones, K. (2013). How important is resilience among family members supporting relatives with traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury? Clinical Rehabilitation, 27(4), 367377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
StatCorp, (2015). Stat statistical software: Release 14. College Station, TX: StatCorp LP.Google Scholar
Szende, A., Janssen, B., & Cabases, J. (Eds.). (2014). Self-reported population health: An international perspective based on EQ-5D. Dordreht, Netherlands: Springer Open.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Te Ao, B., Tobias, M., Ameratunga, S., McPherson, K., Theadom, A., Dowell, A., … BIONIC Study Group. (2015). Burden of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: Incidence, prevalence and disability-adjusted life years. Neuroepidemiology, 44, 255261. doi:10.1159/000431043.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Theadom, A., Barker-Collo, S., Feigin, V. L., Starkey, N. J., Jones, K., Jones, A., … BIONIC Research Group. (2012). The spectrum captured: A methodological approach to studying incidence and outcomes of traumatic brain injury on a population level. Neuroepidemiology, 38, 1829. doi:10.1159/000334746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Theadom, A., Cropley, M., Parmar, P., Barker-Collo, S., Starkey, N., Jones, K., … BIONIC Research Group. (2015). Sleep difficulties one year following mild traumatic brain injury in a population-based study. Sleep Medicine, 16(8), 926932. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2015.04.013.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Theadom, A., Starkey, N., Barker-Collo, S., Jones, K., Ameratunga, S., & Feigin, V. (2018). Population-based cohort study of the impacts of mild traumatic brain injury in adults four years post-injury. PLoS ONE, 13(1), e0191655. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191655.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vangel, S., Rapport, L., & Hanks, R. A. (2011). Effects of family and caregiver psychosocial functioning on outcomes in persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26(1), 2029.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wadhwa, D., Burman, D., Swami, A., Rodin, G., Lo, C., & Zimmermann, C. (2013). Quality of life and mental health in caregivers of outpatients with advanced cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 22(2), 403410. doi:10.1002/pon.2104.Google ScholarPubMed
Wang, H. M., Patrick, D. L., Edwards, T. C., Skalicky, A. M., Zeng, H. Y., & Gu, W. W. (2012). Validation of the EQ-5D in a general population sample in urban China. Quality of Life Research, 21(1), 155160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ware, J. E. Jr., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30, 473483.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ware, J. E., Snow, K. K., Kosinski, M., & Gandek, B. G. (1993). SF-36 Health Survey: Manual and interpretation guide. Boston, MA: The Health Institute.Google Scholar
Zhang, F., Fu, S. Y., Wang, M., & Du, J. (2009). Correlation empirical research on the quality of life of Chinese patients with acute ischemic stoke measured by EQ-5D. China Journal of Pharmaceutical Economics, 6, 512.Google Scholar
Zhou, L., Jin, H., Deng, Z. H., Cheng, X. W., Li, Z., Hu, S. X., … Xu, Z. (2012). Measuring quality of life of hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection by EQ-5D instrument: An exploratory study. Practical Preventive Medicine, 19(5), 644647.Google Scholar
Zigmond, A., & Snaith, R. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361370.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Jones et al. supplementary material

Jones et al. supplementary material

File 29 KB

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 97 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 08th October 2019 - 26th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Changes over time in family members of adults with mild traumatic brain injury
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Changes over time in family members of adults with mild traumatic brain injury
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Changes over time in family members of adults with mild traumatic brain injury
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *