This article updates previous evidence on the role of primary care in the management of depression and related disorders, unexplained physical symptoms, and severe and enduring mental illness. Regarding depression and related disorders, there is now evidence for the benefits of non-medical interventions and collaborative care, providing alternatives to the simplistic over prescription of antidepressant medication. For severe and enduring illness, the emphasis in primary care is now on the effective management of comorbid physical health problems. The article also summarises best practice for the primary care assessment and management of dementia, including the need for holistic review of care quality and the potential benefits of collaborative care. Finally, it notes the growing emphasis on primary mental healthcare in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).