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Science for children in a colonial context: Bengali juvenile magazines, 1883–1923

  • GAUTAM CHANDO ROY (a1)

Abstract

In a period of anti-colonial political struggle and conservative reaction against liberal social reform in India, a band of Bengali men and women reached out to children through magazines with the intention of moulding them so that they would grow up to aid their nation's material progress and uphold a society bereft of colonial indignities and traditional injustices. Integral to this agenda was the attempt to explain the physical world scientifically to them, to make them knowledgeable, and to forge them into rational beings capable of looking at society critically. They wished the young to harbour a compassionate attitude towards nature, but they characterized the modern Western scientific way of knowing about the physical world as the only one worth imbibing, thereby infusing in children a bias against all who thought and lived otherwise. This science instruction was the endeavour of the avant-garde, an iconic hegemonic milieu that left its imprint in social reform and political struggle in colonial Bengali society for a long time.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Footnotes

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All the pictures are from the facsimile edition of the juvenile magazine Sandesh, Calcutta: Parul Prakashani, 2008. I thank Dr Sagar Acharya for helping me to convert the Sandesh images into jpeg files.

Footnotes

References

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1 David Lelyveld defines the ashraf as eminent or exalted … higher status patrilineal groups of Muslims, comparable to Hindu twice-born varna’, in Dwyer, Rachel (ed.), Keywords in South Asian Studies, London, 2004, at www.soas.ac.uk/south-asia-institute/keywords, accessed 15 November 2017.

2 Jones, Kenneth, Socio-religious Reform Movements in British India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 1518, 25–30. In 1846, out of a total of 4,537 students in all government-run schools and colleges of Bengal, 3,846 were Hindus (84.7 per cent) and only 606 (13.3 per cent) were Muslims. In 1882–1883, out of a total of 1,276,762 students, Muslims were only 353,403 (27.6 per cent). Md. Firdaus, Shamim, ‘Development of modern and Western education among Muslims in Bengal from 1835 to 1947: a comparative study’, Proceedings of the Indian History Congress (2012) 73rd session, Mumbai, pp. 906918. In 1881, Brahmans, Baidyas and Kayasthas made up only 9.41 per cent of the total Hindu population in Bengal Presidency; in 1883–1884, they were 84.7 per cent of all Hindu students in colleges and 73.4 per cent in high schools. Seal, Anil, The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968, pp. 42, 61.

3 Ray, Rajat Kanta, Exploring Emotional History, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 70.

4 Raychaudhuri, Tapan, Europe Reconsidered, 2nd revised edn, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. ixxix, 345–362.

5 For details see Gautam Chando Roy: ‘Children's magazines in colonial Bengal, 1883–1923: an essay in social history’, in Anindita Mukhopadhyay (ed.), Contested Sites: The Construction of Childhood, Shimla and New Delhi: Indian Institute of Advanced Study & Primus (forthcoming).

6 Raychaudhuri, Tapan, ‘The pursuit of reason in nineteenth cent6ury Bengal’, in Ray, Rajat Kanta (ed.), Mind, Body and Society, Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 4764, 48, 49.

7 Rajat Kanta Ray, ‘Introduction’, in Ray, op. cit. (6), pp. 1–10.

8 Kopf, David, The Brahmo Samaj and the Shaping of the Modern Indian Mind, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979, p. 48.

9 Rammohan Roy (1772–1833) founded the Brahmo religious movement, crusaded against widow immolation, and advocated for ‘useful’ Western education in India. Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar (1820–1891) rationalized Bengali prose and led a movement for widow remarriage and women's education. Akshaykumar Dutt (1820–1886), self-educated, was assistant secretary of the scholarly association Tattwabodhini Sabha and a journalist. Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay (1838–1894) was among the first graduates of Calcutta University, a civil servant and a leading writer. Ramendrasundar Trivedi (1864–1919) was principal of Ripon College at Calcutta, and a prolific science writer. Mahendralal Sarkar (1833–1904) was an allopath-turned-homeopath and founder of the ‘nationalist’ Association for the Cultivation of Science. Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941), the first Asian to receive the Nobel Prize in literature, was a writer, philosopher and educationalist.

10 Vidyasagar, Ishwarchandra, Bodhoday, Medinipur: Vidyasagar University Press, 2016 (first published 1851), p. 369; Dutt, Akshay Kumar, ‘Bidya-Shiksa’, Charupath, First Part, 51st edn, Calcutta: Sanskrit Press Depository, 1886 (first published 1853), pp. 3–5; Chattopadhyay, Bankimchandra, ‘Bijnanrahasya’ (1875), in Chattopadhyay, , Bankimchandra Rachanavali, vol. 2, 13th edn, Calcutta: Sahitya Samsad, 1998, pp. 115140; Chattopadhyay, ‘Dharmatattva’ (1888), in ibid., pp. 512–615, 568; Mahendralal Sarkar, ‘Bharatbarsiya Bijnan Sabha Anushthanpatra’ (1872), reprinted in ibid., p. 951; Trivedi, Ramendrasundar, Ramendrasundar Rachanavali (essays written between 1886 and 1917), vol. 3, Calcutta: Granthamela, 1977, p. 2; Tagore, Rabindranath, Bishwaparichay, Calcutta: Visva Bharati, 1937, Preface.

11 Rammohan Roy, initially detesting British rule, was later attracted by the intellect, determination and discipline of Europeans, and came to believe that although alien, it would aid the development of his countrymen. Roy, Rammohan, ‘Atmakatha’, in Jana, Nareshchandra, Jana, Manu and Sanyal, Kamalkumar (eds.), Atmakatha, 5 vols., Calcutta: Ananya Prakashan, 1981–1987, vol. 1, pp. 34, 3.

12 Jones, op. cit. (2), pp. 15–47.

13 Mitra, Khagendranath, Shataabdir Shishusahitya, 2nd edn, Calcutta: Bodhoday Libray, 1967, pp. 39.

14 Dutt, op. cit. (10).

15 The prominent among them were Shivnath Shastri (1847–1919), Brahmo reformer and historian; Trailokyanath Mukhopadhyay (1847–1919), curator at the Indian Museum at Calcutta; Jagadishchandra Bose (1858–1937), scientist and archaeologist; Rambrahma Sanyal (1858–1908), zoologist and first superintendent of Alipore Zological Gardens at Calcutta; Prafullachandra Ray (1861–1944), scientist and entrepreneur; Upendrakishore Roychaudhuri (1863–1915), printer, publisher and musician; Jogindranath Sarkar (1866–1937), schoolteacher, primer writer and publisher; Abanindranath Tagore (1871–1951), pioneer in ‘nationalist’ art in India; Sukumar Ray (1887–1923), children's poet and playwright. Women authors included Hemlata Devi (1867–1937), who pioneered female education in the remote hill district of Darjeeling by establishing Maharani Balika Vidyalaya; Grindramohini Dasi (1858–1924), poet, translator and editor of women's magazine Jahnavi; Priyamvada Devi (1871–1935), poet, essayist and secretary of Bharat Stree Mahamandal, the first Indian women's organization.

16 For more about Brahmos and their work see Kopf, op. cit. (8).

17 Mandal, Kalpana, ‘Balakbandhu: Pratham Bangla Kishore Pathya Samayik Patra’, Itihas Anusandhan (1995) 10, pp. 351358; Sampadaker Nibedan’, Sakha O Sathi (1894) 1, p. 20.

18 Basu, Matindramohan, Sakha Sampadak Swargiya Pramadacharan Sen, Calcutta: Kusumika Library, 1889, p. 67.

19 ‘Sampadaker Nibedan’, op. cit. (17), p. 20.

20 Mitra, op. cit. (13), pp. 3–31, 139–189. Basu, Bani, Bangla Shishusahitya Granthapanji, Calcutta: Bangiya Granthagar Parishad, 1979, pp. 421429.

21 Seal, op. cit. (2), pp. 36–57.

22 Between 1881–1882 and 1901–1902, whereas the number of English government-run secondary schools in India went up from 562 to 696, that of private aided schools went up from 1,080 to 1,573, and that of private unaided schools from 491 to 828. ‘Most of this expansion in education in the private sector was in Bengal.’ Chatterjee, Partha, ‘Introduction’, in Chatterjee, (ed.), Texts of Power: Emerging Disciplines in Colonial Bengal, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995, pp. 129, 9–10.

23 Roy, Dinendrakumar, ‘Sekaaler Pathshala’ (1904), in Roy, , Pallichitra, Kolkata: Ananda Publishers, 1986, pp. 119, 1.

24 Binita Nibedan’, Sathi (1893) 1, p. 20; my emphasis.

25 Palit, Chittabrata, Mahendralal Sarkar and the National Science Movement, Calcutta: Readers Service, 2008. See also Kumar, Deepak, ‘Racial discrimination and science in nineteenth-century India’, Indian Economic and Social History Review (1982) 19, pp. 6382; and Chakrabarti, Pratik, Western Science in Modern India, Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2004.

26 Heimsath, Charles H., ‘The origin and enactment of the Indian Age of Consent Bill, 1891’, Journal of Asian Studies (1962) 21, pp. 491504.

27 Sutikagrha O Tadbishaye Gutikatak Upadesh’, Sakha (1891) 9, p. 54.

28 Sakha Paribar Kayekti Niyam’, Sakha (1883) 1, p. 83.

29 Priyamadhab Basu emulated the French and the English to bring out Jyotiringan for the ‘education’ of women and boys and girls; when the editors of Sakha and Sathi lamented the lack of proper reading for children, they certainly had the West in mind.

30 Basu, op. cit. (18). Mitter, Partha, Art and Nationalism in Colonial India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 129; Prastabana’, Sakha (1883) 1, p. 1; Prastabana’, Mukul (1895) 1, p. 1.

31 Tagore, Rabindranath, Ashramer Rup o Bikash, Calcutta: Visva Bharati, 1941, pp. 8, 9; Tagore's letter to Manoranjan Bandopadhyay, 16 February 1910, in Saha, Gourchandra (ed.), Chithipatre Bidyalay-Prasanga, Shantiniketan: Visva Bharati, 2000, p. 67.

32 ‘Surendrababur Karabas’, Sakha (1883) 1, p. 89.

33 Tagore, Rabindranath, ‘Shiksar Herpher’ (1890), in Tagore, , Shiksa, reprint, Calcutta: Visva Bharati 2010, pp. 7, 8, 10, 11.

34 Lack of such data necessary to determine with precision the readers’ profile has been commented upon by others. See, for instance, Joshi, Priya, ‘Reading in the public eye: the circulation of British fiction in Indian libraries, c.1835–1901’, in Blackburn, Stuart and Dalmia, Vasudha (eds.), India's Literary History, 3rd impression, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2010, pp. 280326, 287, 288.

35 Sakha O Sathi (1894) 1, p. 201; Sakha (1883) 1, p. 33.

36 For instance, the Girls’ Association, Bethune School; the Boys’ Association, City School, Calcutta; and the Manikdaha Students Welfare Association, Manikdaha, Eastern Bengal. Sakha (1883) 1, pp. 63, 112, 176.

37 Sathi (1893) 1, pp. 140, 247–248.

38 Circular no 131, dated 20 September 1893, reproduced in Sathi (1893) 1, p. 249.

39 Gargi Gangopadhyay, ‘Reading leisure: a print culture for children in Bengal’, unpublished PhD thesis, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, 2012, pp. 154–160.

40 Sakha (1883) 1, pp. 64, 78, 79, 159; Sakha (1885) 3, p. 31; Sakha (1890) 8, p. 48.

41 Sakha (1883) 1, p. 17; Mukul (1895) 1, p. 33.

42 ‘Sampadaker Nibedan’, Sakha (1883) 1, pp. 17, 78, 119–120.

43 Sakha (1885) 3, subscribers’ list and supplement.

44 Pierre Bourdieu's concept of ‘cultural capital’ as an important basis for middle-class formation in India has been emphasized by Sanjay Joshi. See his Introduction’, in Joshi, (ed.), The Middle Class in Colonial India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. xvlvi, xvii.

45 De, Yogeshchandra, Godhulite Bhorer Smrti, Calcutta: Ekush Shatak, 2008, pp. 56, 10, 13–14, 31, 38–39.

46 The modern bhadralok profile of the readers is apparent in the fact that in 1883–1884, more than half of students in colleges and schools had fathers in government service and the professions, only 13 per cent had a trade background, and just about 6 per cent came from the peasantry. But they not were necessarily economically privileged: in 1883–1884, only 7 per cent in high schools came from families of the highest annual income group of Rs. 5,000 and above, 67 per cent came from the Rs. 200–5,000 income bracket, and 26 per cent from the under-Rs. 200 income bracket. ‘Many of the bhadralok families who educated their sons must have had a struggle to pay.’ Chatterjee, op. cit. (22), p. 10; Seal, op. cit. (2), pp. 36, 63, 64; Chatterjee, Srilata, Congress Politics in Bengal, London: Anthem, 2002, p. 14.

47 Surya’, Sakha O Sathi (1897) 4, pp. 4951; Akasher Katha’, Mukul (1900) 6, pp. 5760, 73–77, 83–87; Uttar aar Dakshin’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 610; Tara’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 4953; Tara Dekha’, Sandesh (1915) 3, pp. 8993.

48 Marubhumi’, Sakha O Sathi (1894) 1, pp. 6770; Meru Pradesh’, Mukul (1895) 1, pp. 5154; Dakshin Merur Abhimukhe’, Mukul (1909) 15, pp. 123124; Himer Desh’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 8993, 114–117, etc.; Africa Desher Ban’, Sandesh (1915) 3, pp. 237241.

49 Guru Darbar’, Sakha (1886) 4, pp. 4447; Swadesh-e Trichinapalli’, Mukul (1905) 10, pp. 114117; Megher Muluk’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 7073, 106–109; Shimla Pahar’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, pp. 238242; Assam Prabasir Patra’, Sathi (1893) 1, pp. 146149, 164–167; Baner Khabar’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 125128, 155–159, etc.

50 For more details see Gautam Chando Roy, ‘Swadesh: a land of one's own: themes of nationality in children's literature of late 19th and early 20th century Bengal’, in Samanta, Arabinda, Nasreen, Syed Tanveer and Dhar, Aparajita (eds.), Life and Culture in Bengal: Colonial and Post-colonial Experiences, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 2011, pp. 128152.

51 For details see Gangopadhyay, op. cit. (39), pp. 201–203; and Sen, Satadru, ‘A juvenile periphery: the geographies of literary childhood in colonial Bengal’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History (2004) 5(1), n.p.

52 Agneogiri’, Sathi (1893) 1, pp. 119120, 148–149; Prakrtik Gahbar’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, pp. 5153; Kaylar Khani’, Mukul (1902) 8, pp. 8687; Adbhut Phoara’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 245247; Ghurni Bayu’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 327331; Barapher Kheyal’, Sandesh (1915) 3, pp. 156158.

53 Adbhut Phoara’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 245246.

54 Chokher Dhnadhna’, Sathi (1893) 1, pp. 9597; Baidyutik Danda’, Sakha O Sathi (1896) 3, pp. 223226; Shabda’, Mukul (1907) 13, pp. 1922; Garamer Kaj’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 3739; Prthibir Aakar Prakar’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 8183; Chhayabaji’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 186187; Chokher Phnaki’, Sandesh (1918) 6, pp. 5557.

55 Kumirer Atibuddhi’, Mukul, (1895) 1, pp. 2930; Sundarban’, Mukul (1909) 15, pp. 9496; Baghe Kumire’, Mukul (1907) 13, pp. 106107; Bagher Gapla’, Sandesh, (1913) 1, pp. 8889; Sundarbaner Janoar’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 225227; Kumirer Galpa’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 4950.

56 Gorilla’, Sathi (1893) 1, pp. 8689; Chimpanzee’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, pp. 4950; Singha’, Sakha O Sathi (1896) 3, pp. 1418; Sindhughatak o Jalahasti’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, pp. 174176; Okapi’, Mukul (1907) 13, p. 123; Penguin Pakhi’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 171173; Rakshuse Machh’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 8586; Flamingo’, Sandesh (1915) 3, pp. 221222.

57 Utpakshi’, Sakha (1885) 3, pp. 172174.

58 Machhi’, Sakha (1883) 1, pp. 2829; Makarshar Katha’, Sakha O Sathi (1894) 1, pp. 1519; GirgitiSakha O Sathi (1894) 1, pp. 142145; Badur’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, pp. 1115; Kathbirali’, Mukul (1897) 3, pp. 182185; Kitanu O Rog’, Mukul (1904) 10, pp. 124126; Jibanu’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 132136.

59 Udbhider Katha’, Sathi (1893) 1, pp. 211214; Shikari Gachh’, Sakha O Sathi, (1894) 1, pp. 135138, 150–153; Gachher Mukh’, Mukul (1902) 8, p. 19; Shikari Gachh’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 365367; Shiuli Phul’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 201203.

60 Shikar’, Mukul (1896) 2, pp. 190196, 220–222; Bagh Daka’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 324326; Timi Shikar’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 4245; Baghmar’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 121122; Gandar Shikar’, Mukul (1906) 12, pp. 106107.

61 Akasher Nouka’, Sandesh (1893) 1, pp. 274277; Duburi Jahaj’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 116121; Adbhut Bari Taiari’, Sandesh (1914) 2, p. 22; Patalpuri’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 188190.

62 Unuchu Bari’, Sandesh (1914) 2, p. 316.

63 Ghari’, Sakha O Sathi (1894) 1, pp. 4648; Phonograph’, Mukul (1907) 13, pp. 5355; Kagaj’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 5761; Lekhar Katha’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 247249; Juddha Jahaj’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 155157.

64 Assam Prabasir Patra’, Sathi (1893) 1, p. 146; see also Upendrakishore Roychaudhuri's comment about Europeans in Himer Desh’, Sandesh (1913) 1, p. 90.

65 Michael Faraday’, Sakha O Sathi (1894) 1, pp. 8286; Taiko Brahe’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 336339; Acharya Basur Nutan Abishkar’, Mukul (1904) 10, pp. 186187.

66 Pakhider Desh Bhraman’, Sakha (1887) 5, p. 65, my emphasis.

67 Bijnaner Katha’, Sathi (1893) 1, p. 117, my emphasis.

68 Ramayaner Katha’, Sakha (1883) 1, p. 33.

69 Sekaler Bhugol’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 197201.

70 Megher Muluk’, Sandesh (1913) 1, p. 70, my emphasis. See also Bhautik Aangti’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, p. 75; and Bhojbaji O Bhelkibaji’, Mukul (1896) 2, p. 12.

71 Unibingsha Shatabdi’, Mukul (1899) 5, pp. 1112.

72 Gangopadhyay, op. cit. (39), pp. 119–121; Noakes, Richard, ‘The Boy's Own Paper and late-Victorian juvenile magazines’, in Cantor, G.N. (ed.), Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical: Reading the Magazine of Nature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 166170.

73 Roychaudhuri, op. cit. (6), p. 53.

74 Itar Pranir Buddhi’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, pp. 122123, 142–144; Sealer Bhalobasa’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, pp. 156158; Pashuder Buddhi’, Mukul (1895) 1, pp. 117121; Amar Mayur’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 103106.

75 Noakes, op. cit. (72), pp. 167–168.

76 Thomas, Keith, Man and the Natural World, London: Allen Lane, 1983, p. 302.

77 Baindur, Meera, Nature in Indian Philosophy and Cultural Traditions, New Delhi, Springer, 2015.

78 Thomas, op. cit. (76), p. 17.

79 Pratham Kabi O Kabya’, Sandesh (1913) 1, p. 10. See also Mukul (1895) 1, p. 4, Assam Prabasir Patra’, Mukul (1895) 1, pp. 146147.

80 Samalochana’, Sathi (1893) 1, p. 210.

81 Binita Nibedan’, Sathi (1893) 1, p. 18.

82 Sengoopta, Chandak, The Rays before Satyajit, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 45, 18–20.

83 Binita Nibedan’, Sathi (1893) 1, p. 18; Jibjantu’, Mukul (1901) 7, p. 20.

84 Thakurdadar Galpa’, Sakha (1883) 1, pp. 9194. Two such instances would be the Islamic cosmological treatise of Shaikh Sadi, Gada Malika Sambad (1712), cited in Ray, op. cit. (7), pp. 10, 36; and Betal-Panchabingshati (rendition by Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, 1847), a traditional tale in the form of a conversation between a king and a possessed body.

85 Uttar O Dakshin’, Sandesh (1913) 1, p. 32.

86 Lattu’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 7578.

87 Suryer Katha’, Balak (1885) 1, p. 6.

88 Gangopadhyay, op. cit. (39), p. 95, p. 187.

89 Sen, op. cit. (51), n.p.

90 Banerjee, Swapna M., ‘Children's literature in nineteenth-century India: some reflections and thoughts’, in Findlay, Rosie and Salbayre, Sebastien (eds.), Stories for Children, Histories of Childhood, Tours: Presses Universitaires François-Rabelais, 2017, p. 337351.

91 Goswami, Supriya, Colonial India in Children's Literature, New York: Routledge, 2012, pp. 135167, 136.

92 Bandopadhyay, Shibaji, Gopal-Rakhal Dwandwasamas: Upanibeshbad O Bangla Shishusahitya, Calcutta: Papyrus, 1991, pp. 3334.

93 Raychaudhuri, Tapan, ‘Norms of family life and personal morality among the Bengali Hindu elite, 1600–1850’, in Baumer, Rachel M. (ed.), Aspects of Bengali History and Society, Hawaii: University Press of Hawaii, 1975, pp. 1325.

94 Viswanathan, Gauri, Masks of Conquest: Literary Studies and British Rule in India, New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. A contemporary critique of colonial education and domestic instruction is Tagore, Rabindranath, Shiksa, Calcutta: Visva Bharati, 1908.

95 Sarkar, Benoy Kumar, ‘Charitragathaner Upadan: Manabseba’, in Sarkar, , Shiksa-Samalochana, Calcutta: Chakraborty Chatterjee & Company, 1912, pp. 2129, 21–22.

96 Kakar, Sudhir, The Inner World, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1981, p. 192.

97 Chando Roy, op. cit. (5).

98 Gautam Chando Roy, ‘The pathshala and the school’, in Ray, op. cit. (6), pp. 197–207.

99 Ray, op. cit. (7), p. 10. Also Bhumikampa’, Sathi (1893) 1, p. 244; Sekaler Bhugol’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 197201.

100 Datta, Bhabatosh, At Dashak, Calcutta: Pratikshan Publications Private Limited, 1988, pp. 3233; Gupta, Pratulchandra, Dinguli Mor, Calcutta: Ananda Publishers Private Limited, 1985, p. 32; Basu, Buddhadeva, Amar Chhelebela, Calcutta: M.C. Sarkar & Company, 1989, pp. 8284.

101 Tagore, Rabindranath, My Life in My Words (compiled and ed. Dasgupta, Uma), New Delhi: Penguin Viking, 2006, quoted in Gangopadhyay, op. cit. (39), p. 117.

102 Basu, op. cit. (100), p. 83.

103 Chakrabarty, Punyalata, Chhelebelar Dinguli, Calcutta: Ananda Publishers Private Limited, 1997, p. 61.

104 Basu, Sunirmal, ‘Upendrakishorer Sandesh’, Korak Sahitya Patrika, Calcutta: Korak, 2005, pp. 227.

105 Roychaudhuri, Hitendrakishore, ‘Giridihir Smrti’, Korak Sahitya Patrika, Calcutta: Korak, 2005, p. 203.

106 Basu, Buddhadeva, ‘Upendrakishore Roychaudhuri’, Korak Sahitya Patrika, Calcutta: Korak, 2005, p. 197.

107 Sarkar, Akshaychandra, ‘Pitaputra’, in Jana, Jana and Sanyal, op. cit. (11), vol. 5, p. 45. Atarthi, Premankur, Mahasthabir Jatak, vol. 1, Calcutta: Dey's Publishing House, 1982, pp. 127128.

108 For instance, Das, Nagendranath (aged seven), ‘Conduct towards the poor and the unfortunate’, Sakha (1887) 5, p. 32.

109 Bagchi, Jasodhara, ‘Socialising the girl child in colonial Bengal’, Economic and Political Weekly (1993) 28, pp. 22142219.

110 De, Bina, Hariye Jaoa Din, Calcutta: Papyrus, 2013, pp. 2122, 33, 37.

111 For instance, Sen, Suniti (aged eleven), ‘Sandhya’, Mukul (1896) 2, p. 32.

112 Raychaudhuri, op. cit. (93), p. 20.

113 For more on this see Gangopadhyay, op. cit. (39), pp. 136–138.

114 Nag, Shanta, Purbasmrti, Calcutta: Papyrus, 1983, p. 25.

115 Fruzzetti, Lina and Ostor, Akos, ‘Bad blood in Bengal: category and affect in the study of kinship, caste, and marriage’, in Ostor, Akos, Fruzzetti, Lina and Barnett, Steve (eds.), Concepts of Person: Kinship, Caste, and Marriage in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983, pp. 3940.

116 Tagore, Rabindranath, Shishu Bholanath, Calcutta, 1943, p. 89.

117 Basu, Buddhadev, ‘Bangla Shishusahitya’, Sahiyacharcha, Calcutta: Dey's Publishing House, 1992, p. 40.

118 Dilli’, Sakha O Sathi (1895) 2, p. 220; Sandesher Katha’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 23; Hasir Galpa’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 1518, Chalak Chakor’, Sandesh (1914) 2, pp. 4143.

119 Rakshas’, Mukul (1895) 1, p. 85; Prakrtir Poshmana’, Sandesh (1913) 1, p. 122; Prthibir Akar Prakar’, Sandesh (1914) 2, p. 81; Baghmar’, Sandesh (1914) 2, p. 121; Paharer Dnat’, Sandesh (1915) 3, p. 102.

120 Kakar, op. cit. (96), p. 210.

121 Meyera Amader Ke?’, Sakha (1883) 1, pp. 1214; Bhagabati Devi’, Mukul (1895) 1, pp. 99100; Maldonada’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 207209; Praskovia’, Sandesh (1913) 1, pp. 270273, 294–297; Sat Meye’, Sandesh (1915) 3, pp. 2428, 57–58.

122 Jones, op. cit. (2), p. 25.

123 Jang Bahadur’, Sathi (1893) 1, pp. 2223. Chitor Darshan’, Mukul (1896) 2, p. 7.

124 Rahman, Atwar, Shishu Sahitye Muslim Sadhana, Dhaka: Bangla Academy, 1994, pp. 90102.

125 Tapan Raychaudhuri, ‘Transformation of Indian sensibilities’, in Raychaudhuri, Perceptions, Emotions, Sensibilities, Calcutta: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 3–21.

126 Khela’, Sandesh (1913) 1, p. 60.

127 Naga Jati’, Sakha (1888) 6, p. 166. Maldonada’, Sandesh (1913) 1, p. 207. Lekhar Katha’, Sandesh (1914) 2, p. 247.

128 Shastri, Shivnath, Atmacharit, Calcutta: Dey's Publishing, 2003, p. 248.

129 Groen, J., Smit, E. and Eijsvoogel, J. (eds.), The Discipline of Curiosity: Science in the World, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1990, p. 1.

130 Shivnath Shastri, the editor of Mukul, spelt out the age group: eight or nine to sixteen or seventeen; Mukul (1895) 1, p. 17.

131 Ray, op. cit. (7), p. 12.

132 Groen, Smit and Eijsvoogel, op. cit. (129), p. 2.

All the pictures are from the facsimile edition of the juvenile magazine Sandesh, Calcutta: Parul Prakashani, 2008. I thank Dr Sagar Acharya for helping me to convert the Sandesh images into jpeg files.

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Science for children in a colonial context: Bengali juvenile magazines, 1883–1923

  • GAUTAM CHANDO ROY (a1)

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