Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Vocabulary size and speed of word recognition in very young French–English bilinguals: A longitudinal study*

  • JACQUELINE LEGACY (a1), PASCAL ZESIGER (a2), MARGARET FRIEND (a3) and DIANE POULIN-DUBOIS (a1)

Abstract

A longitudinal study of lexical development in very young French–English bilinguals is reported. The Computerized Comprehension Test (CCT) was used to directly assess receptive vocabulary and processing efficiency, and parental report (CDI) was used to measure expressive vocabulary in monolingual and bilingual infants at 16 months, and six months later, at 22 months. All infants increased their comprehension and production of words over the six-month period, and bilingual infants acquired approximately as many new words in each of their languages as the monolinguals did. Speed of online word processing was also equivalent in both groups at each wave of data collection, and increased significantly across waves. Importantly, significant relations emerged between language exposure, vocabulary size, and processing speed, with proportion of language exposure predicting vocabulary size at each time point. This study extends previous findings by utilizing a direct measure of receptive vocabulary development and online word processing.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Jacqueline Legacy, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, PY Building 276-3, H4B 1R6, Montreal, Quebec, Canada jlegacy@hotmail.ca

Footnotes

Hide All
*

This research was supported by NICHD under award #R01HD468058 and does not necessarily represent the views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors wish to thank Laura Alaria, Alexandra Bittner, Antonella Crettol, Cristina Crivello, Katherine Gittins, Melissa Icart, Olivia Kuzyk, Tamara Patrucco-Nanchen, Monyka Rodrigues, and Lyakout Mohamed Said for their help with data collection.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Barnes, J., & Garcia, I. (2012). Vocabulary growth and composition in monolingual and bilingual Basque infants and toddlers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17, 357374.
Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K. F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 525531.
Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C. S., Putnick, D. L., & Suwalsky, J. T. (2014). Stability of core language skill from early childhood to adolescence: A latent variable approach. Child Development, 85, 13461356.
Bornstein, M. H., Putnick, D. L., & De Houwer, A. (2006). Child vocabulary across the second year: Stability and continuity for reporter comparisons and a cumulative score. First Language, 26, 299316.
Bosch, L., & Ramon-Casas, M. (2014). First translation equivalents in bilingual toddlers’ expressive vocabulary: Does form similarity matter? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38, 317322.
Core, C., Hoff, E., Rumiche, R., & Señor, M. (2013). Total and conceptual vocabulary in Spanish–English bilinguals from 22 to 30 months: implications for assessment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56, 16371649.
Dale, P. S., & Fenson, L. (1996). Lexical development norms for young children. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28, 125127.
DeAnda, S., Bosch, L., Poulin-Dubois, D., Zesiger, P., & Friend, M. (in press). The language exposure assessment tool: Quantifying language exposure in infants and children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research.
DeAnda, S., Arias-Trejo, N., Poulin-Dubois, D., Zesiger, P., & Friend, M. (2016). Minimal second language exposure, SES, and early word comprehension: New evidence from a direct assessment. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 162180.
De Houwer, A. (2007). Parental language input patterns and children's bilingual use. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 411424.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & De Coster, S. (2006). Early understanding of two words for the same thing: A CDI study of lexical comprehension in infant bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 10, 331348.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & Leach, D. B. (2005). Assessing early communicative ability: A cross-reporter cumulative score for the MacArthur CDI. Journal of Child Language, 32, 735758.
De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & Putnick, D. L. (2014). A bilingual-monolingual comparison of young children's vocabulary size: Evidence from comprehension and production. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 11891211.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). PPVT-III: Peabody picture vocabulary test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Thal, D., Bates, E., Hartung, J. P., Pethick, S., & Reilly, J. S. (1993). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories: User's guide and technical manual. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group.
Fernald, A., & Marchman, V. A. (2012). Individual differences in lexical processing at 18 months predict vocabulary growth in typically developing and late-talking toddlers. Child Development, 83, 203222.
Fernald, A., Marchman, V. A., & Weisleder, A. (2013). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 16, 234248.
Fernald, A., Perfors, A., & Marchman, V. A. (2006). Picking up speed in understanding: Speech processing efficiency and vocabulary growth across the 2nd year. Developmental Psychology, 42, 98116.
Fernández, M. C., Pearson, B. Z., Umbel, V. M., Oller, D. K., & Molinet-Molina, M. (1992). Bilingual receptive vocabulary in Hispanic preschool children. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 14, 268276.
Friend, M., & Keplinger, M. (2003). An infant-based assessment of early lexicon acquisition. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 35, 302309.
Friend, M., Schmitt, S. A., & Simpson, A. M. (2012). Evaluating the predictive validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task: Comprehension predicts production. Developmental Psychology, 48, 136148.
Friend, M., & Zesiger, P. (2011). A systematic replication of the psychometric properties of the CCT in three languages: English, Spanish, and French. Enfance, 3, 329344.
Genesee, F., & Nicoladis, E. (2007). Bilingual acquisition. In Hoff, E. & Shatz, M. (eds.), Handbook of Language Development, pp. 324342. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
Goldfield, B. A., & Reznick, J. S. (1990). Early lexical acquisition: Rate, content, and the vocabulary spurt. Journal of Child Language, 17, 171183.
Grüter, T., Hurtado, N., Marchman, V. A., & Fernald, A. (2014). Language exposure and online processing efficiency in bilingual development: Relative versus absolute measures. In Grüter, T. & Paradis, J. (eds.), Input and Experience in Bilingual Development, 13, pp. 1536. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Hammer, C. S., Hoff, E., Uchikoshi, Y., Gillanders, C., Castro, D. C., & Sandilos, L. E. (2014). The language and literacy development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 715733.
Hammer, C. S., Lawrence, F. R., & Miccio, A. W. (2008). Exposure to English before and after entry into Head Start 1: Bilingual children's receptive language growth in Spanish and English. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11, 3056.
Hendrickson, K., Mitsven, S., Poulin-Dubois, D., Zesiger, P., & Friend, M. (2014). Looking and touching: What extant approaches reveal about the structure of early word knowledge. Developmental Science, 18, 723735.
Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (1996). The intermodal preferential looking paradigm: A window into emerging language comprehension. In McDaniel, D., McKee, C., & Cairns, H. S. (eds.), Methods for assessing children's syntax, pp. 105124. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hoff, E. (2013). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: Implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49, 414.
Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Señor, M., & Parra, M. (2012). Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39, 127.
Hoff, E., Rumiche, R., Burridge, A., Ribot, K. M., & Welsh, S. N. (2014). Expressive vocabulary development in children from bilingual and monolingual homes: A longitudinal study from two to four years. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 433444.
Hurtado, N., Grüter, T., Marchman, V., & Fernald, A. (2014). Relative language exposure, processing efficiency and vocabulary in Spanish-English bilingual toddlers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 189202.
Junker, D. A., & Stockman, I. J. (2002). Expressive vocabulary of German-English bilingual toddlers. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 381394.
Kan, P. F., & Kohnert, K. (2008). Fast mapping by bilingual preschool children. Journal of Child Language, 35, 495514.
Kan, P. F., & Kohnert, K. (2012). A growth curve analysis of novel word learning by sequential bilingual preschool children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 452469.
Kern, S. (1999). Inventaire Français du Développement Communicatif chez le nourrisson. Lyon, France: Laboratoire Dynamique du Langage. Institut des Sciences de l'Homme.
Law, J., & Roy, P. (2008). Parental report of infant language skills: A review of the development and application of the communicative development inventories. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13, 198206.
Legacy, J., Reider, J., Crivello, C., Kuzyk, O., Friend, M., Zesiger, P., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2016a). Dog or chien? Translation equivalents in the receptive and expressive vocabularies of young French-English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, doi: 10.1017/S0305000916000295. Published online by Cambridge University Press, July 5, 2016.
Legacy, J., Zesiger, P., Friend, M., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2016b). Vocabulary size, translation equivalents, and efficiency in word recognition in very young bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 43, 760783.
MacLeod, A., Fabiano-Smith, L., Boegner-Pagé, S., & Fontolliet, S. (2013). Simultaneous bilingual language acquisition: The role of parental input on receptive vocabulary development. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 29, 131142.
Mancilla-Martinez, J., & Vagh, S. B. (2013). Growth in toddlers’ Spanish, English, and conceptual vocabulary knowledge. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 555567.
Marchman, V. A., Fernald, A., & Hurtado, N. (2010). How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish–English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 37, 817840.
Patterson, J. L., & Pearson, B. Z. (2012). Bilingual lexical development, assessment, and intervention. In Goldstein, B. A. (ed.), Bilingual Language Development and Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers, 2nd Edition, Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.
Pearson, B. Z., & Fernández, S. C. (1994). Patterns of interaction in the lexical growth in two languages of bilingual infants and toddlers. Language Learning, 44, 617653.
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S., & Oller, D. K. (1993). Lexical development in simultaneous bilingual infants: Comparison to monolinguals. Language Learning, 43, 93120.
Poulin-Dubois, D., Bialystok, E., Blaye, A., Polonia, A., & Yott, J. (2012). Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17, 5770.
Schwartz, M., Moin, V., & Leikin, M. (2012). Lexical knowledge development in the first and second languages among language-minority children: The role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15, 549571.
Stokes, S. F., & Klee, T. (2009). Factors that influence vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 498505.
Thordardottir, E. (2011). The relationship between bilingual exposure and vocabulary development. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 426445.
Trudeau, N., Frank, I., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (1999). Une adaptation en français Québécois du MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. La Revue d'Orthophonie et d'Audiologie, 23, 6173.
Uchikoshi, Y. (2006). English vocabulary development in bilingual kindergartners: What are the best predictors? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 3349.
Umbel, V. M., Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, M. C., & Oller, D. K. (1992). Measuring bilingual children's receptive vocabularies. Child Development, 63, 10121020.
Vagh, S. B., Pan, B. A., & Mancilla‐Martinez, J. (2009). Measuring growth in bilingual and monolingual children's English productive vocabulary development: The utility of combining parent and teacher report. Child Development, 80, 15451563.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Vocabulary size and speed of word recognition in very young French–English bilinguals: A longitudinal study*

  • JACQUELINE LEGACY (a1), PASCAL ZESIGER (a2), MARGARET FRIEND (a3) and DIANE POULIN-DUBOIS (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.