Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-ndmmz Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-30T11:17:29.291Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Declarative and procedural memory as individual differences in second language acquisition*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 March 2013

KARA MORGAN-SHORT*
Affiliation:
University of Illinois at Chicago
MANDY FARETTA-STUTENBERG
Affiliation:
University of Illinois at Chicago
KATHERINE A. BRILL-SCHUETZ
Affiliation:
University of Illinois at Chicago
HELEN CARPENTER
Affiliation:
Upper-Story Consulting
PATRICK C. M. WONG
Affiliation:
The Chinese University of Hong Kong & Northwestern University
*
Address for correspondence: Kara Morgan-Short, 601 S. Morgan St., 1706 University Hall, M/C 315, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USAkarams@uic.edu

Abstract

This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received extended comprehension and production practice using the L2. Syntactic development was assessed at both early and late stages of acquisition. Results indicated positive relationships between declarative learning ability and syntactic development at early stages of acquisition and between procedural learning ability and development at later stages of acquisition. Individual differences in these memory abilities accounted for a large amount of variance at both stages of development. The findings are consistent with theoretical perspectives of L2 that posit different roles for these memory systems at different stages of development, and suggest that declarative and procedural memory learning abilities may predict L2 grammatical development, at least for implicitly trained learners.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

*

We would like to acknowledge members of the Cognition of Second Language Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago for assistance in collecting data for this study. We thank Alice H. D. Chan, Francis C. K. Wong and Michael T. Ullman for thoughtful discussions about this work, and we appreciate the insightful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript from anonymous reviewers. This work was supported by a Language Learning Small Research Grant to K.M.S. and by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01DC008333 & K02AG035382) awarded to P.C.M.W.

References

Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K. (2009). Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., & Frölich, M. (1978). Variables of classroom achievement in second language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 62, 327336.Google Scholar
Bowden, H. W., Gelfand, M. P., Sanz, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2010). Verbal inflectional morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A frequency effects study examining storage versus composition. Language Learning, 60, 4487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brovetto, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2005). The mental representation and processing of Spanish verbal morphology. In Eddington, D. (ed.), Selected proceedings of the Seventh Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, pp. 98105. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Press.Google Scholar
Carpenter, H. S. (2008). A behavioral and electrophysiological investigation of different aptitudes for L2 grammar in learners equated for proficiency level. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University.Google Scholar
Carpenter, H., Morgan-Short, K., & Ullman, M. T. (2009). Predicting L2 using declarative and procedural memory assessments: A behavioral and ERP investigation. Presented at the Georgetown University Round Table, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. B. (1958). A factor analysis of two foreign language aptitude batteries. Journal of General Psychology, 59, 319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, J. B. (1962). The prediction of success in intensive foreign language training. In Glaser, R. (ed.), Training research and education, pp. 87136. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. B. (1981). Twenty-five years of research on foreign language aptitude. In Diller, K. C. (ed.), Individual differences and universals in foreign language aptitude, pp. 83118. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. B., & Sapon, S. M. (1959). Modern Language Aptitude Test. New York: The Psychological Corporation/Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
Chandrasekaran, B., Kraus, N., & Wong, P. C. M. (2012). Human inferior colliculus activity relates to individual differences in spoken language learning. Journal of Neurophysiology, 107, 13251336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern Test Theory. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
DeKeyser, R. M. (1995). Learning second language grammar rules: An experiment with a miniature linguistic system. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17 (3), 379410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeKeyser, R. M. (2000). The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 499533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeKeyser, R. [M.] (2007). Skill acquisition theory. In VanPatten, B. & Williams, J. (eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction, pp. 97113. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Dorfberger, S., Adi-Japha, E., & Karni, A. (2007). Reduced susceptibility to interference in the consolidation of motor memory before adolescence. PLoS ONE, 2, 16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. Modern Language Journal, 79, 6789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eichenbaum, H. (2002). The cognitive neuroscience of memory: An introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eichenbaum, H., & Cohen, N. J. (2001). From conditioning to conscious recollection: Memory systems of the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ettlinger, M., Bradlow, A., & Wong, P. C. M. (in press). Variability in the learning of complex morphophonology. Applied Psycholinguistics.Google Scholar
Ferman, S., Olshtain, E., Schechtman, E., & Karni, A. (2009). The acquisition of a linguistic skill by adults: Procedural and declarative memory interact in the learning of artificial morphological rule. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 22, 384412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foerde, K., Knowlton, B. J., & Poldrack, R. (2006). Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 1177811783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friederici, A. D., Steinhauer, K., & Pfeifer, E. (2002). Brain signatures of artificial language processing: Evidence challenging the critical period hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 529534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harley, B., & Hart, D. (1997). Language aptitude and language proficiency in classroom learners of different starting ages. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 379400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harley, B., & Hart, D. (2002). Age, aptitude, and second language learning on a bilingual exchange. In Robinson (ed.), pp. 301–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horwitz, E., Horwitz, M., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaller, C. P., Rahm, B., Köstering, L., & Unterrainer, J. M. (2011). Reviewing the impact of problem structure on planning: A software tool for analyzing tower tasks. Behavioural Brain Research, 216, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaller, C. P., Unterrainer, J. M., & Stahl, C. (2012). Assessing planning ability with the Tower of London task: Psychometric properties of a structurally balanced problem set. Psychological Assessment, 24, 4653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Adult Version, Second Edition (K-BIT-2) (2nd edn.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
Knowlton, B. J., & Moody, T. D. (2008). Procedural learning in humans. In. Bryne, J. H. (ed.), Learning and memory: A Comprehensive reference (vol. 3): Memory systems, pp. 321340. Oxford: Academic Press/Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knowlton, B. J., & Squire, L. R. (1995). Remembering and knowing: Two different expressions of declarative memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 21 (3), 699710.Google ScholarPubMed
Knowlton, B., Squire, L. R., & Gluck, M. A. (1994). Probabilistic classification in amnesia. Learning and Memory, 1, 106120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mackey, A., Adams, R., Stafford, C., & Winke, P. (2010). Exploring the relationship between modified output and working memory capacity. Language Learning, 60, 501533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. In Healy, A. F. & Bourne, L. E. J. (eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention, pp. 339364. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Morgan-Short, K. (2007). A neurolinguistic investigation of late-learned second language knowledge: The effects of explicit and implicit conditions. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University.Google Scholar
Morgan-Short, K., Finger, I., Grey, S., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure. PLoS ONE, 7: e32974.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan-Short, K., Sanz, C., Steinhauer, K., & Ullman, M. T. (2010). Second language acquisition of gender agreement in explicit and implicit training conditions: An event-related potential study. Language Learning, 60, 154193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morgan-Short, K., Steinhauer, K., Sanz, C., & Ullman, M. T. (2012). Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 933947.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ohlsson, S. (2008). Computational models of skill acquisition. In Sun, R. (ed.), The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology, pp. 359395. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Opitz, B., & Friederici, A. D. (2003). Interactions of the hippocampal system and the prefrontal cortex in learning language–like rules. NeuroImage, 19, 17301737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ouellet, M. C., Beauchamp, M. H., Owen, A. M., & Doyon, J. (2004). Acquiring a cognitive skill with a new repeating version of the Tower of London task. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 272288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paradis, M. (1994). Neurolinguistic aspects of implicit and explicit memory: Implications for bilingualism and SLA. In Ellis, N. C. (ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages, pp. 393419. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Paradis, M. (2004). A neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paradis, M. (2009). Declarative and procedural determinants of second languages (vol. 40). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perrachione, T., Lee, J., Ha, L., & Wong, P. C. M. (2011). Learning a novel phonological contrast depends on interactions between individual differences and training paradigm design. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130, 461472.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robinson, P. (ed.). (2002). Individual differences and instructed language learning. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2003). Attention and memory during SLA. In Doughty, C. & Long, M. (eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition, pp. 631678. Malden, MA: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, P. (2005). Cognitive abilities, chunk-strength, and frequency effects in implicit artificial grammar and incidental L2 leaning: Replications of Reber, Walkenfeld, and Hernstadt (1991) and Knowlton and Squire (1996) and their relevance for SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 235268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, S., Yoshinaga, N., & Sasaki, M. (2002). Aptitude-exposure interaction effects on wh-movement violation detection by pre-and-post critical period Japanese bilinguals. In Robinson (ed.), pp. 266–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanz, C. (ed.). (2005). Mind and context in adult second language acquisition: Methods, theory, and practice. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Sherry, D. F., & Schacter, D. L. (1987). The evolution of multiple memory systems. Psychological Review, 94, 439454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skehan, P. (1986). Cluster analysis and the identification of learner types. In Cook, V. (ed.), Experimental approaches to second language acquisition, pp. 8195. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Skehan, P. (1991). Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 275298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snow, R. E. (1991). Aptitude-Treatment Interaction as a framework for research on individual differences in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 205216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., & Pohlman, J. (1989). Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners. Annals of Dyslexia, 39, 179195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Squire, L. R., & Knowlton, B. J. (2000). The medial temporal lobe, the hippocampus, and the memory systems of the brain. In Gazzaniga, M. (ed.), The new cognitive neurosciences, pp. 765780. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Squire, L. R., & Wixted, J. T. (2011). The cognitive neuroscience of human memory since H. M. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 34, 259288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Squire, L. R., & Zola, S. M. (1996). Structure and function of declarative and nondeclarative memory systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 93, 1351513522.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trahan, D. E., & Larrabee, G. J. (1988). Continuous Visual Memory Test. Odessa, FL: Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1993). What is episodic memory? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 6770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 105122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ullman, M. T. (2004). Contributions of memory circuits to language: The declarative/procedural model. Cognition, 92, 231270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ullman, M. T. (2005). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on second language acquisition: The declarative/procedural model. In Sanz, C. (ed.), Processing approaches to adult SLA: Theory and practice, pp. 141178. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Unterrainer, J. M., Rahm, B., Leonhart, R., Ruff, C. C., & Halsband, U. (2003). The Tower of London: The impact of instructions, cueing, and learning on planning abilities. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 675683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
VanPatten, B. (1994). Evaluating the role of consciousness in second language acquisition: Terms, linguistic features, and research methodology. AILA Review, 11, 2736.Google Scholar
Weinberg, S. L., & Abramowitz, S. K. (eds.) (2002). Data analysis for the behavioral sciences using SPSS. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Williams, J. N. (2011). Working memory and SLA. In Gass, S. M. & Mackey, A. (eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition, pp. 427441. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Witt, K., Nuhsman, A., & Deuschi, G. (2002). Intact artificial grammar learning in pateients with cerebellar degeneration and advanced Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychologia, 40, 15301540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, P. C. M., Morgan-Short, K., Ettlinger, M., & Zheng, J. (2012). Linking neurogenetics and individual differences in language learning: The dopamine hypothesis. Cortex, 48, 10911102CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, P. C. M., & Perrachione, T. K. (2007). Learning pitch patterns in lexical identification by native English-speaking adults. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 565585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, P. C. M., Perrachione, T. K., & Parrish, T. B. (2007). Neural characteristics of successful and less successful speech and word learning in adults. Human Brain Mapping, 28, 9951006.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wong, P. C. M., Warrier, C. M., Penhune, V. B., Roy, A. K., Sadehh, A., Parrish, T. B., & Zatorre, R. J. (2008). Volume of left Heschl's gyrus and linguistic pitch learning. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 828836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed