Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A Longitudinal Study of Developmental Differences in Universal Preventive Intervention for Child Anxiety

  • Sally Lock (a1) and Paula M. Barrett (a1)

Abstract

The present paper presents the results of a longitudinal study evaluating the effects of a universal school-based intervention for child anxiety at two developmental stages. The study involved a cohort of 733 children enrolled in grade 6 (n = 336, 45.6%) aged between 9 and 10 years, and grade 9 (n = 401, 54.4%) aged between 14 and 16 years. Participants were allocated to either a school-based cognitive-behavioural intervention or to a monitoring group, and completed standardised measures of anxiety, depression and coping style. Young people identified as “at risk” of an anxiety disorder were assessed for a clinical diagnosis with a structured diagnostic interview. Findings showed universal intervention as potentially successful in reducing symptoms of anxiety and increasing coping skills in children. Primary school children reported the greatest changes in anxiety symptoms, suggesting earlier preventive intervention was potentially more advantageous than later intervention. Developmental differences in anxiety, depression and coping strategies are discussed in addition to the implications and limitations of this study and directions for future research.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Dr Paula Barrett, School of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Health Science, Psychology Building Mt Gravatt, Griffith University, Brisbane QLD 4111, Australia. Email: P.Barrett@griffith.edu.au

References

Hide All
Amburster, P., Andrews, E., Couenhoven, J., & Blau, G. (1999). Collision or collaboration? School based health services meet managed care. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (2), 221237.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Barrett, P.M. (1998). Evaluation of cognitive-behavioural group treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, (4), 459468.
Barrett, P.M., Dadds, M.R., & Rapee, R.M. (1991). The coping koala: Treatment manual. ,Unpublished manuscript The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Barrett, P., Dadds, M., & Rapee, R. (1996). Family treatment of childhood anxiety: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, (2), 333342.
Barrett, P.M., Lock, S., & Turner, C. (in press). Developmental differences in universal preventive intervention for child anxiety. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
Barrett, P.M., Lowry-Webster, H.M., & Turner, C.M. (1999). FRIENDS program social validity and treatment integrity scales. Brisbane, Australia: Australian Academic Press.
Barrett, P.M., Lowry-Webster, H., & Turner, C. (2000a). Friends for Children group leader manual (2nd ed.). Brisbane, Australia: Australian Academic Pres.
Barrett, P.M., Lowry-Webster, H., & Turner, C. (2000b). Friends for Children participant workbook (2nd ed.). Brisbane, Australia: Australian Academic Pres.
Barrett, P.M., & Turner, C.M. (2001). Prevention of anxiety in primary children: Preliminary results from a universal school based trial. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 112.
Billings, A.G., & Moos, R.H. (1981). The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the impact of stressful life events. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 4, 139157.
Brodzinsky, D.M., Elias, M.J., Steiger, C., Simon, J., Gill, M., & Clarke Hitt, J. (1992). The Coping Scale for Children and Youth. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 13, 195214
Cole, D.A., Peeke, L.G., Martin, J.M., Truglio, R., & Seroczynski, A.D. (1998). A longitudinal look at the relation between depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, (3), 451460.
Compas, B.E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 393403.
Compas, B.E., Malcarne, V., & Fondacoro, K.M. (1988). Coping with stressful life events in older children and young adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 405411.
Dadds, M.R., Spence, S.H., Holland, D.E., Barrett, P.M., & Laurens, K.R. (1997). Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, (4), 627635.
Dadds, M.R., Holland, D.E., Laurens, K.R., Mullins, M., Barrett, P.M., & Spence, S.H. (1999). Early intervention and prevention of anxiety disorders in children: Results at 2-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, (1), 145150.
Donovan, C.L., & Spence, S.H. (2000). Prevention of childhood anxiety disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, (4), 509531.
Gerad, A.B., & Reynolds, C.R. (1998). Characteristic and applications of the revised children's manifest anxiety scale (RCMAS). In Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcome assessment (pp. 323340). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.
Jaycox, L.H., Reivich, K.J., Gillham, J., & Seligman, M.E. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, (8), 801816.
Kendall, P.C. (1994). Treating anxiety disorders in children: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, (1), 100110.
Kovacs, M. (1982). The children's depression inventory (CDI) manual. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems..
Kovacs, M. (1985). The children's depression inventory. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21(4), 995998.
Kubiszyn, T. (1999). Integrating health and mental health services in schools: Psychologists collaborating with primary care providers. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (2), 179198.
Lowry-Webster, H.M., Barrett, P.M., & Dadds, M.R. (2001). A universal prevention trial of anxiety and depressive symptomatology in childhood: Preliminary data from an Australian study. Behaviour Change, 18, (1), 3650.
Lowry-Webster, H.M., Barrett, P.M., & Lock, S. (in press). A universal prevention trial of anxious symptomatology in childhood: Results at one-year follow-up. Behaviour Change.
Mattison, R.E., Handford, H.A., Kales, H.C., Goodman, A.L., & McLaughlin, R.E. (1990). Four-year predictive value of the children's depression inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2, (2), 169174.
Mrazek, P.J. & Haggerty, R.J. (Eds.). (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders: Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Reynolds, C.R. (1982). Convergent and divergent validity of the revised children's manifest anxiety scale. Educational and psychological measurement, 42, 12051212.
Reynolds, C.R., & Richmond, B.O. (1978). What I think and feel. A revised measure of children's manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 1520.
Reynolds, C.R., & Richmond, B.O. (1985). The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale: Manual. New York: Western Psychological Services.
Silverman, W.K., & Albano, A.M. (1996). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM–IV, Child and Parent versions. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Silverman, W.K., & Eisen, A.R. (1992). Age differences in the reliability of parent and child reports of child anxious symptomatology using a structured interview. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 117124.
Silverman, W.K. , Kurtines, W.M., Ginsburg, G.S., Weems, C.F., Lumpkin, P.W., & Carmicheal, D.H. (1999). Treating anxiety disorders in children with group cognitive-behavioural therapy: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, (6), 9951003.
Silverman, W.K., Kurtines, W.M., Ginsburg, G.S., Weems, C.F., Rabian, B., & Serafini, L.T. (1999). Contingency management, self-control, and education support in the treatment of childhood phobic disorders. A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, (5), 675687.
Silverman, W.K., & Rabian, B. (1995). Test-retest reliability of the DSM-III-R childhood anxiety disorders using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9, (2), 139150.
Smucker, M.R., Craighead, W.E., Craighead, L.W., & Green, B.J. (1986). Normative data and reliability for the childrens’ depression inventory. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, (1), 2539.
Spence, S.H. (2001). The prevention of child anxiety. In M.W., Vasey & M.R., Dadds (Eds.), The developmental psychopathology of anxiety (pp. 325351). UK: Oxford University Press.
Spence, S.H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 545566.
Spence, S.H. (1994). Prevention In T.H., Ollendick, N., King, & W., Yule (Eds.), International handbook of phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 133154). New York: Plenu.
Spence, S.H., Barrett, P.M., & Turner, C.M. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale with young adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, (6), 605625.
Wisniewski, J.J., Mulick., Gensharft, J.L., & Coury, D.L. (1987). Test-retest reliability of the revised children's manifest anxiety scale. Perceptual and motor skills, 65, 6760.
Witt, J.C., Heffer, R.W., & Pfeiffer, J. (1990). Structured rating scales: A review of self-report and informant rating procedures, and issues. In C.R., Reynolds & R.W., Kamphaus (Eds.), Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children (pp. 364394). New York: Guildford Publication.
Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics (3rd ed). USA: Harper Collins Publishers Inc.

A Longitudinal Study of Developmental Differences in Universal Preventive Intervention for Child Anxiety

  • Sally Lock (a1) and Paula M. Barrett (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed