Speech production is influenced by the orthographic representation of the spoken word. Although previous work has shown that inconsistencies between the word’s sound and spelling may facilitate or disrupt processing (e.g., Alario, Perre, Castel, & Ziegler, 2007; Saletta, Goffman, & Brentari, 2015; Saletta, Goffman, & Hogan, 2016; Ventura, Morais, Pattamadilok, & Kolinsky, 2004), the developmental course of this effect on new readers remains unclear. The current study examines how children’s production of nonwords changes as a function of exposure to the nonwords’ orthography. We tested nonword repetition in 17 children with typical reading skills and 17 children with poor reading skills. Participants heard and repeated nonword stimuli, or read them aloud when the stimuli were written in either a relatively transparent or an opaque spelling. We quantified participants’ segmental accuracy and speech movement stability both before and after their exposure to the nonwords’ orthography. The children improved only in segmental accuracy (and not speech movement stability) and only as a consequence of practice (and not because of exposure to the nonwords’ spellings). Children with poorer reading skills demonstrated a greater change in accuracy from pretest to posttest than children with stronger reading skills. Thus, one’s automaticity in reading and the reorganization of his/her literacy skills throughout development influence speech production.