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  • G. Richard Tucker


During the past decade, since the inception of the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, work in the field has been exciting, socially relevant, and expanding. This trend will likely continue throughout the 1990s and into the 21st Century. A variety of factors—attitudinal, demographic, economic, and sociological to mention but a few—will converge and lend urgency to the need for language educators to broaden their work. From a vantage point at the Center for Applied Linguistics, I have been repeatedly amazed during the past several years at the increasing attention focused on language issues—notice, for example, the concern with the workplace literacy crisis, the under-representation of language minority individuals in science and mathematics education and in technical fields; the continuing monolinguality of the American population, and with the credibility of young children as witnesses in sexual abuse trials. A discussion of the importance of language and literacy issues may be found today in such formerly unlikely sources as the newest book by the renowned management consultant Peter Drucker (1989). Indeed, during the past 18 months five major reports have appeared—Science for All Americans (American Association for the Advancement of Science 1989), Everybody Counts (National Research Council 1989), Workforce 2000 (Johnston 1987), Jump Start (Chisman 1989), and Turning Points (Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development 1989)—each of which presents and discusses in vivid detail the looming/educational/workplace crisis.



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American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1989. Science for all Americans. Washington, DC: AAAS. [A Project 2061 report on litracy goals in science, mathematics, and technology.]
Brennan, M. and van Naerssen, M.. 1989. Language and content in ESP. ELT journal. 43.3.196205.
Campbell, R. N. and Lindholm, K. J.. 1987. Conservation of language resources. Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Language Education and Research. [Educational Report 6.]
Cantoni-Harvey, G. 1987. Content-area language instruction: Approaches and strategies. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. 1989. Turning points: Preparing American youth for the 21st Century. New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Chamot, A. U. and Kupper, L.. 1989. Learning strategies in foreign languages instruction. Foreign language annals. 22.1.1324.
Chisman, F. P. 1989. Jump start: The Federal role in adult literacy. Washington, DC: The Southport Institute for Policy Analysis.
Cleghorn, A., Merritt, M., and Abagi, J. O.. 1989. Language policy and science instruction in Kenyan primary schools. Comparative education review. 33.1.2139.
Clyne, M. (ed.) 1986. An early start: Second language at primary school. Melbourne: River Seine Publications.
Clyne, M. 1988. Bilingual education—what can we learn from the past? Australian journal of education. 32.95114.
Cocking, R. R. and Mestre, J. P. (eds.) 1988. Linguistic and cultural influences on learning mathematics. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cohen, A. D. and Weltens, B. (eds.) 1989. Language attrition. Studies in second language acquisition. 11.2.127222. [Special Issue.]
Corson, D. 1989. Foreign language policy at school level: FLT and cultural studies across the curriculum. Foreign language annals. 22.4.323338.
Coulmas, F. (ed.) 1988. With forked tongues. Singapore: Karoma Publishers.
Crandall, J. (ed.) 1987. ESL through content-area instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents/Center for Applied Linguistics.
Crandall, J. and Tucker, G. R.. 1989. Content-based language instruction in second and foreign languages. Paper presented at RELC Regional Seminar, Singapore.
Crawford, J. 1989. Bilingual education: History, politics, theory and practice. Trenton, NJ: Crane.
Cummins, J. 1989. Empowering minority students. Sacramento, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.
Drucker, P. F. 1989. The new realities. New York: Harper & Row.
Fixman, C. S. 1989. The foreign languages needs of U. S.-based corporations. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Center. (05)
Genesee, F. 1987. Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.
Granoien, N. (ed.) 1989. Applied language learning. 1.1.176.
Johnston, W. B. 1987. Workforce 2000: Work and workers for the 21st Century. Indianapolis, IN: Hudenson Institute.
Kaplan, R. B. 1989. English as language of science. VOX. 1.2.4953. [The journal° of the Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education (AACLAME); cf., other issues of VOX.]
Lambert, R. D. 1989. The national foreign language system. Washington, DC: The National Foreign Language Center. (06)
Language and society. 1988. 3 Vols. Becolarra, Spain: Graficas Santamaria. Vol. 2. [Proceedings of the II World Basque Congress.]
Leaver, B. L. and Stryker, S. B.. 1989. Content-based instruction for foreign language classrooms. Foreign language annals. 22.3.269275.
Lindholm, K. J. 1987. Directory of bilingual immersion programs: Two-way bilingual education for language minority and majority students. Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Language Education and Research. [Educational Report 8.]
LoBianco, J. 1987. National policy on language. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Lowenberg, P. H. (ed.) 1988. Language spread and language policy: Issues, implications and case studies. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. [Georgetown University round table on languages and linguistics 1987.]
Mahale, K. J. and Dimri, J. P.. 1988. Suggestions for developing a new policy for the teaching of foreign languages in India. Journal of English and foreign languages. (No vol.) 1.9197.
McGroarty, M. 1989. The benefits of cooperative learning arrangements in second language instruction. NABE journal. 13.2.127140.
Mestre, J. et al. 1988. Comprehending premises: Effects of negations and training among Anglos and Hispanics. NABE journal. 12.2.243279.
National Research Council. 1989. Everybody counts: A report to the Nation on the future of mathematics education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nunberg, G. 1989. Linguists and the official language movement. Language. 63.3.579587.
Oxford, R. and Rhodes, N. C.. 1988. Foreign language in elementary and secondary schools: Results of a national survey. Foreign language annals. 21.1.5162.
Oxford, R. L., Lavine, R. Z., and Crookall, D.. 1989. Language learning strategies, the communicative approach, and their classroom implications. Foreign language annals. 22.1.2939.
Paulston, C. B. (ed.) 1988. International handbook of bilingualism and bilingual education. New York: Greenwood Press.
Ramaiah, L. S. 1989. Index to CIEFL Bulletin. [Vols.]1–19:1961–1983. Bulletin of the Central Institute for English and Foreign Language. 1.1.99117. [Hyderabad, India.]
Roller, C. M. 1988. Transfer of cognitive academic competence and L2 reading in a rural Zimbabwean primary school. TESOL quarterly. 22.2.303318.
San Miguel, G. 1988. Bilingual education policy development: The Reagan years, 1980–1989. NABE journal. 12.2.97109.
Short, D. J., Crandall, J., and Christian, D.. How to integrate language and content instruction: A training manual. Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Language Education and Research. [Educational Report 15.]
Snow, M. A. and Brinton, D. H.. 1988. Content-based language instruction: Investigating the effectiveness of the adjunct model. TESOL quarterly. 22.4.553574.
Snow, M. A.Brinton, D. H., Met, M., and Genesee, F.. A conceptural framework for the integration of language and content in second/foreign language instruction. TESOL quarterly. 23.2.201217.
Spolsky, B. 1989. Conditions for second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Torres, J. S. et al. , 1989. Limited English proficient students' process in acquiring English proficiency. New York: Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment, New York City Board of Education. [Research Section Report.]
Valdman, A. (ed.) 1988. The assessment of foreign language oral proficiency. Studies in second language acquisition. 10.2.121280. [Special issue.]
Willing, A. C. 1985. A meta-analysis of selected studies on the effectiveness of bilingual education. Review of educational research. 55.3.269317.

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