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On the Integration of Language and Content Instruction

  • George Spanos


The 1980s were dynamic years for applied linguistic researchers and practitioners involved in the integration of language and content instruction. In addition to the publication of five stimulating texts devoted to the subject (Mohan 1986, Cantoni-Harvey 1987, Crandall 1987, Enright and McCloskey 1988, and Brinton, Snow, and Wesche 1989), there was increasing attention at all school levels to curriculum development, materials development, teacher training, evaluation, and assessment, Second and foreign language educators as well educators in the fields of mathematics, science, and social science have become cognizant of the relationship between language development and the acquisition of content-specific knowledge and skills.



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A language for life: Report of the committee of inquiry appointed by the secretary of state for education and science under the chairmanship of Sir Alan Bullock F.B.A. 1975. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1989. Science for all Americans: A project 2061 report on literacy goals in science, mathematics, and technology. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science Publication.
Chamot, A. U. and O'Malley, J. M.. 1987. The cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL quarterly. 21.2.227249.
Christian, D. et al. , In press. Combining language and content for second language students. In Padilla, A. M., Fairchild, H. H., and Valadez, C. M. (eds.) Innovations in language education. 2 vols. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications [Vol. 1: Bilingual education and English as a second language.]
Connolly, P. and Vilardi, T. (eds.) 1989. Writing to learn mathematics and science. New York: Teachers College Press.
Costa, A. L. (ed.) 1985. Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Crandall, J. A. et al. , 1989. English skills for algebra: Math-language activities for algebra students. 2 Vols. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. [Book 1: Tutor book and resource materials; Book 2: Student workbook.]
Cuevas, G. J. 1984. Mathematics learning in English as a second language. Journal for research in mathematics education. 15.2.134144.
Cummins, J. 1979. Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimal age, and some other matters. Working papers an bilingualism. 19.197205.
Curtain, H. A. and Martinez, L. S.. 1989. Integrating the elementary school curriculum into the foreign language class: Hints for the FLES teacher. Los Angeles: Center for Language Education and Research, UCLA. [ERIC: ED 305 823.]
Curtain, H. A. and Pesola, C. A.. 1988. Languages and children: Making the match. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Early, M., Thew, C., and Wakefield, P.. 1986. ESL instruction via the regular curriculum: A framework and resource book. 2 Vols. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education. [Vol. 1: Theoretical framework and sample lessons; Vol. 2: Resources for integrating language and content instruction, K-12.]
Enright, S. D. and McCloskey, M. L.. 1988. Integrating English. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Freeman, D., Freeman, Y., and Gonzales, G.. 1987. Success for LEP students: The Sunnyside sheltered English program. TESOL quarterly. 21.2.361367.
Genesee, F. 1987. Learning through two languages: Strategies of immersion and bilingual education. New York: Newbury House.
Graham, J. G. and Beardsley, R. S.. 1986. English for specific purposes: Content, language, and communication in a pharmacy course model. TESOL quarterly. 20.2.227246.
Heald-Taylor, G. 1986. Whole language strategies for ESL students. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education Press.
Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A.. 1987. English for sepcific purposes: A learning-centered approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kessler, C. and Quinn, M. E.. 1987. ESL and science learning. In Crandall, J. A. (ed.) ESL through content-area instruction. Englwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 5557.
Krashen, S. D. 1985. Input in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
B. L., Leaver and Stryker, S. B.. 1989. Content-based instruction for foreign language classrooms. Foreign language annals. 22.3.269275.
Mestre, J. P. 1988. The role of language comprehension in mathematics and problem sloving. In Mestre, J. P. and Cocking, R. R. (eds.) Linguistic and cultural influences on learning mathematics. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 201220.
Miami-Dade Community College. 1989. A training package for English Skills for Algebra. Miami, FL: Miami-Dade Community College. [Project funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, Grant No. G008730483.]
National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. 1987. Sheltered English: An approach to content area instruction for liminted-English-proficient students. Forum. 10.6.1,3.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1989. Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.
National Research Council. 1989. Everybody counts: A report to the nation on the future of mathematics education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Northcutt, L. and Watson, D.. 1986. S.E.T.: Sheltered English teaching handbook. Carlsbad, CA: Northcutt, Watson, Gonzalez.
Ramirez, A. 1985. Bilingualism through schooling: Cross-cultural education for minority and majority students. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Resnick, L. B. and Klopfer, L. E. (eds.) 1989. Toward the thinking curriculum: Current cognitive research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Shih, M. 1986. Content-based approaches to teaching academic writing. TESOL quarterly. 20.4.617648.
Snow, C. E. 1987. Beyond conversation: Second language learners's acquisition of description and evaluation. In Lantolf, J. and Labarca, A. (eds.) Research in second language learning: Focus on the classroom. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 316.
Snow, M. A. and Brinton, D. M.. 1988. Content-based language instruction: Investigating the effectiveness of the adjunct model. TESOL quarterly. 22.4.553574.
Spanos, G. and Crandall, J. A.. In press. Language and problem solving: Some examples from math and science. In Padilla, A. M., Fairchild, H. H., and Valadez, C. M. (eds.) Innovations in language education. 2 vols. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications [Vol. 1: Bilingual education and English as a second language.]
Willets, K. (ed.) 1986. Integrating language and content instruction. Los angeles: Center for Language Education and Research, UCLA. [ERIC ED278262.]

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On the Integration of Language and Content Instruction

  • George Spanos


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