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Anchialos-Sindos Double Trapeza. Pit C: observations on the painted and black-glazed pottery of local fourth-century BC workshops

  • Kyriaki Kalliga (a1)

Abstract

The article points out certain features of Late Classical pottery in Macedonia, based on the contents of a refuse pit in the ancient Anchialos-Sindos Double Trapeza settlement (in the industrial area of present-day Sindos), which yielded large quantities of local pottery. It describes a number of types of vessels, some of which resemble their Attic prototypes more or less closely, while others are totally independent creations of the local workshop. The precise dating of this pottery was a consequence of the need to determine with greater accuracy the events that led to the abandonment of many settlements around the Thermaikos Gulf and the founding of the city of Thessaloniki by Cassander in the late 4th century BC.

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1 The article is based on part of the material assigned by the director of the dig, Professor M. Tiverios, for a postgraduate dissertation (Kalliga, K., ‘Pottery from Pit C of the Lower Achialos-Sindos Trapeza—Iron Age Pottery, Red-figure Pottery, Locally-Produced Black-Glazed and Painted Vessels, Lamps, Figurines’, unpublished dissertation presented to the Department of History and Archaeology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1999). My colleague A. Pandi studied another important portion of the material from the pit (see below—abbreviations): this is scheduled for publication in Εγνατία.

I should like to express my heartfelt thanks to Professor Tiverios, not only for the right to publish this material but also for his irreplaceable assistance with all the problems that emerged during the writing of this paper. I would also like to take this opportunity of thanking Professors I. Akamatis and St. Drougou for their invaluable advice.

Special abbreviations:

ΑΕΜΘ = Το ΑρΧαιολογιχοʹ ᾿Εργο στη Μαχεδονιʹα χαι τη Θρἁχη.

Agora, xii = Sparkes, B. A. and Talcott, L., The Athenian Agora, vii: Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and 4th centuries B.C. (Princeton, NJ, 1970).

Agora, xxix = Rotroff, S. I., The Athenian Agora, xxix: Athenian and Imported Wheelmade Table Ware and Related Material (Princeton, NJ, 1997).

Corinth, vii = Edwards, G. R., Corinth, vii: Corinthian Hellenistic Pottery (Princeton, NJ, 1975).

Kabirion, iii = Heimberg, U., Das Kabirenheiligtum bei Theben, iii: Die Keramik des Kabirions (Berlin, 1982).

Kopcke 1992 = Kopcke, G., ‘Catalogue of Finds: 1. Ceramics’, in McCredie, J. R., Roux, G., Shaw, St. M., and Kurtich, J., Samothrace, vii: The Rotunda of Arsinoe (Princeton, 1992), 277326.

Olynthus, v = Robinson, D. M., Excavations at Olynthus, v: Mosaics, Vases, and Lamps of Olynthus found in 1928 and 1931 (Baltimore and London, 1933).

Olynthus, xiii = Robinson, D. M., Excavations at Olynthus, xiii: Vases found in 1934 and 1938 (Baltimore and London, 1950).

Pandi 1999 = Pandi, A., “Κεραμιχἡ απὁ το λἁχχο Γτης χἁτω Τρἁπεζας ΑγΧιὰἁλου: Γεωμετριχἡ, ῾῾ασημὶζουσἀ᾿, μελαμβαφἡς χαι αβαφἡς χεραμιχἡ χαι υφαντιχἁ βἁρη ᾿᾿ ” (unpublished post-graduate dissertation presented to the Department of History and Archaeology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1999).

2 For the history of the excavations and the conclusions derived from the history of the settlement, see Tiverios, M., ΑΕΜΘ 4 (1990), 315–25; id. ΑΕΜΘ 5 (1991), 235–46; ΑΕΜΘ 6 (1992), 357–67; ΑΕΜΘ 7 (1993), 241–50; Tiverios, M., Kathariou, K. and Lachanidou, Kl., ΑΕΜΘ 8 (1994), 223–9; Tiverios, M., Kathariou, K., Lachanidou, Kl. and Oetli, M., ΑΕΜΘ 9 (1995), 293300; Tiverios, M., ΑΕΜΘ 10A (1996), 407–25; id. Εγνατία, 3 (1991–2), 208–34; id. Παϱνασσός, 35 (1993), 560; id., ‘The ancient settlement in the Anchialos-Sindos Double Trapeza: seven years (1990–1996) of archaeological research’, in M. Mats and B. D'Agostino (eds), Euboica: l'Eubea e la presenza euboica in Calcidica e in Occidente, Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Napoli, 13–16 novembre 1996 (Naples, 1998), 243–5; Tiverios, M., Pandi, A., Seroglou, F., Avramidou, A., Oetli, M. and Kaitelidis, K., ΑΕΜΘ 11 (1997), 297304; Tiverios, M. and Yimatzidis, St., ΑΕΜΘ 14 (2000), 191202; iid., ΑΕΜΘ 15 (2001), 299–308; iid., ΑΕΜΘ 16 (2002), 223–9.

3 For the coastline of the Thermaikos Gulf see Sivignon, M., “ Η γεωγραφιχἡ ειχὁνα της Μαχεδονἱας ”, in Sakellariou, M. B. (ed.), Μαχεδονἱα 4000 Χρόνια ελληνιχής ιστορίας χαι πολιτισμού (Athens, 1982), 24–6; Tiverios, M., ΑΕΜΘ 10A (1996), 411 n. 17, with extensive bibliography.

4 For the unparalleled advantages the central Macedonian plain afforded its inhabitants, see Hammond, N. G. L., A History of Macedonia, i (Oxford, 1972), 142–3, 205–6.

5 Ibid., 12–13; Hammond, N. G. L. and Griffith, G. T., A History of Macedonia, ii (Oxford 1979), 70. Traces of goldmay still be found in the sands of the Gallikos. For the jewellery and other small articles of decorative metalwork from Sindos, see Vokotopoulou, I. et al. , Σί νδος, Κατάλογος της έχϑεσης (Athens, 1985), 13 ff.; ead., Οδηγός ΑρΧαιολογιχού Μουσεὶου Θεσσαλονίχης (Athens, 1996), 103.

6 With regard to the limitations imposed on archaeological research as a result of the specific conditions obtaining on the archaeological site and the objects of the university digs, see M. Tiverios, ΑΕΜΘ 4 (1990), 317; id. ΑΕΜΘ 7 (1993), 241.

7 This void may be partly filled when the new material from the graveyard area, which is being studied by the Archaeological Service, is published; meanwhile see also Moschonisiotou, S., ΑΕΜΘ 2 (1988), 283–8; Misailidou-Despoditou, B., “Τάφοι χλασιχών Χρόνων από το νεχροταφείο της Σίνδου”, in Μνήμη Μανώλη Ανδρόνιχου (Μαχεδονιχά, supp. vol. 6; Thessaloniki, 1997), 153–86; Keramaris, A., Protopsalti, S. and Tsolakis, St., ΑΕΜΘ 16 (2002), 233–8. Since, however, modern human activity has eliminated the upper strata, it is highly likely that no extensive relics of the 4th c. BC remain to be found in the area of the settlement.

8 Tiverios, M., ΑΕΜΘ 6 (1992), 361–3.

9 Strabo vii. frr. 21, 24.

10 For the specific fragment and related bibliography, see Kalliga (n. 1), 25–6, no. 20, pls. a–b.

11 Pandi 1999, 42–5. For the problem of distinguishing between Attic imports and local manufactures, see Cook, J. M., ‘Old Smyrna: fourth-century black glaze’, BSA 60 (1965), 143–4; Jehasse, L., Salamine de Chypre, viii: Ceramique à vernis noir du rempart méridional (Paris, 1978), 78.

12 Pandi 1999, 44–5. The microscopic analysis performed on a sample of this category showed that the clay was different in colour and composition from that of vessels assumed to have been Attic imports and thus were evidently products of a local workshop.

13 Wherever possible, vessels were dated on the basis of the internal stylistic evolution of the forms themselves and on detailed comparison with different local workshops, without ignoring Attic manufacture.

14 Olynthus, v, nos. 1014–22, pl. 188.

15 Agora, xii. 170.

16 Olynthus, xiii, nos. 632 (early 4th c. BC).

17 For this feature as a dating element, see Corinth, vii. 95.

18 Lids are usually flatter in shape, see Agora, xii, nos. 1226–39.

19 Olynthus, v, no. 1031.

20 Agora, xii. 168–70.

21 Kabirion, iii. 33, nos. 151–4, pl. 10 (4th c. BC, local).

22 Olynthus, v, no. 1010 (4th c. BC).

23 Kabirion, iii. 33, nos. 151–4, pl. 10.

24 Agora, xii. 56. Similar vessels from Olynthus are described as large phialae, see Olynthus, v. 25 (‘pre-Persian’ group III).

25 For the use of off-white slip on locally-produced Olynthus ware (with the emphasis on the ‘pre-Persian’ category), which in many cases is barely visible, see Olynthus, v. 38.

26 Agora, xii. 56, 241, no. 67, 68.

27 Drougou, St. et al. , Βεργία: Η Μεγάλη Τούμπα,, ΑρΧαιολογιχός Οδηγός (Thessaloniki, 1996), 58.

28 Chrysostomou, A., ΑΕΜΘ 1 (1987), 161, fig. 2 a, second row (4th c. BC?).

29 Kabirion, iii. 44, no. 261, pl. 13 and 66, no. 431, pl. 19 (early 3rd c. BC and 2nd half of 4th c. BC respectively, local). 6 lacks the angular profile of no. 261 and should be dated to the 2nd half of the 4th c. BC.

30 Agora, xii. 56–7, 242, no. 84, pl. 4.

31 Aik. Despoini, “Κεραμειχοί χλίβανοι Σίνδου”, Arch. Eph. 1982, 71, figs. 8, 6, pl. 5 δ.

32 Agora, xii. 213–14, 364, no. 1820 (lekane), pl. 85 (320–290 BC).

33 Olynthus, v. 25, nos. P 28 A, P 29–30 (‘pre-Persian’ group III).

34 See below, ‘Chalcidic painted ware’.

35 Agora, xii. 209, nos. 1716, 1719, pl. 79. Also, similarly shaped vessels from the Kabirion at Thebes are described as Näpfe (cups), but these are smaller in size and more carefully fashioned (Kabirion, iii. 65, 139, nos. 420–1, pl. 19, early 4th c. BC, local).

36 Pemberton, El. G., Corinth, xviii. i: The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore. The Greek Pottery (Princeton, NJ, 1989) no. 153, pl. 17 (late 4th c. BC, local).

37 See Kalliga (n. 1), 75–6.

38 Blondé, Fr., ‘Un remblai thasien du IVe siècle: la céramique’, BCH 109 (1985), 309, 317, no. 210 (local).

39 Agora, xii. 172–3.

40 U. Knigge and W. Kovacscovics, ‘Kerameikos: Tätigkeitsbericht 1979’, AA (1981), 388, fig. 10.

41 Stemmed pyxides are found in earlier periods as well: see e.g. Agora, xii. 172–3, no. 1278, pl. 42, Knigge, U., Kerameikos: Der Südhügel (Berlin, 1976), pl. 83 (‘Deckelpyxis’). In these vessels the body narrows slighdy just before it meets the rim, a feature that is not found in 8. See also Boultier, C. G., ‘Graves in Lenormant Street, Athens’, Hesp. 32 (1963), 123, no. E 9, pl. 42.

42 For similar decoration, see Olynthus, v. 39, no. P 64, pl. 36.

43 For a similar teardrop ornament, Ibid., 39, no. P 65, pl. 37; Vokotopoulou et al. (n. 5), 49, no. 8322 (460–440 BC).

44 Salles, J. F., Kition-Bamboula: les egouts de la ville classique (Paris, 1983), 46, no. 119 (350–325 BC, Attic).

45 Agora, xii, no. 1241, fig. 11.

46 The pyxide s from Rhode s have a completely different style of lid, handles, and foot, and are like 10 only in the proportions of the body, see Yiannikouri, A., Patsiada, B. and Philemonos, M., “Χρονολογιχά προβλήματα γραπτής χεραμιχής από τη Pόδο”, Β' Επιστημονιχή Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστιχή Κεραμιχή (Athens 1990), 172–84, 176–8; Yiannikouri, A. and Patsiada, B., “Σύνολα χεραμιχής από τη νεχρόπολη της Pόδου: Συμβολή στην ελληνιστιχή χεραμιχή”, Ελληνιστιχή χεραμιχή απότο Αιγαίο (Mytilini, 1994), 102, 104 (4th c. BC).

47 Cf. Agora, xxix. 104, 267, pl. 22, no. 237 (350–325 BC).

48 For the vessels in this group, the chronological framework and the whole general subject, see below, ‘Chalcidic painted ware’.

49 Vokotopoulou et al. (n. 5), 48, no. 8322 (mid 5th c. BC).

50 The later, Hellenistic examples, have a longer body; see Drougou, St. and Touratsoglou, I., Ελληνιστιχοί λαξευτοί τάφοι Βεροίας (Athens, 1980), 160.

51 Vokotopoulou et al. (n. 5), 49; Olynthus, v, pl. 26.

52 Robinson has dated the vessels from Olynthus to the early 5th c. BC; by contrast, the authors of Agora, xii agree that the shape appeared suddenly and simultaneously in many parts of continental Greece, from the middle of the 4th c. on. For the doubts raised by Robinson's early dating, see Agora, xii. 191 n. 26 (‘… the Persian destruction levels at Olynthus were in many places heavily disturbed’) and Rotroff, S. I., ‘New shapes and techniques in early Hellenistic Athenian pottery’, Β' Επιστημονιχή συνάντηση για την ελληνιστιχή χεραμιχή (Athens, 1990), 33. See also, for the provenance of the shape and its chronological limits, Yiannikouri, A., Patsiada, B. and Philemonos, M., “Ταφιχά σύνολα από τις νεχροπόλεις της αρΧαίας Pόδου'”, Α ́ Επιστημονιχή Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστιχή Κεραμιχή (Ioannina, 1989), 64 n. 37.

53 Agora, xii. 191–2, 340, pl. 63 (325–300 BC); Thompson, H. A., ‘Two centuries of Hellenistic pottery’, Hesp. 3 (1934), 315, no. A 68, pl. 9 (shaft A, end 4th c. BC).

54 Vokotopoulou (n. 5), 49, no. 2801 (300–250 BC).

55 A. Yiannikouri, B. Patsiada, and M. Philemonos (n. 52), 63, pl. 44, no. n 4072 (Type C).

56 Smetana-Scherrer, R., Alt-Agina: spiitklassiche und hellenistische Keramik (Mainz am Rhein, 1982), 88, no. 707, pl. 56 (early 3rd c. BC).

57 According to Drougou, St. and Touratsoglou, I., “Χρονολογημένα σύνολα ελληνιστιχής χεραμιχής από τη Μαχεδονία”, Γ Επιστημονιχή Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστιχή Κεραμιχή (Θεσσαλονίχη 1991) (Athens, 1994), 135, pseudo-amphoriskoi were more frequently used towards the end of the 4th century BC, but acquired a spindle shape in the late 4th or early 3rd c. BC.

58 Olynthus, xiii. 406–7, no. 1008, 1020 (bowls on stands). The examples from Olynthus have been dated to the 4th c. BC.

59 Pandi 1999, 45–6 (analysis of clay).

60 Agora, xii, nos. 351–2 (350–340 BC); Corinth, vii. 69, no. 310, pl. 50.

61 Panti 1999, 44–5.

62 Alexandrescu, P., Histria: la céramique d'époque archaïque et classique (VIe–IVe s.) (Bucharest, 1978), 90, no. 587 (375–350 BC, Attic).

63 Agora, xii. 129, 293, no. 801, pl. 32 (1st half of 4th c. BC). It should be stressed that the bowls in this group cannot be totally identified with the examples from the Athenian Agora, since their walls are straighter and their rims flatter.

64 Corinth, vii. 33, no. 72, pl. 3 (2nd quarter of 4th c. BC, local).

65 Olynthus, v, no. 939 (4th c. BC).

66 Fr. Blonde (n. 38), 294, no. 66 (1st half of 4th c. BC).

67 See Kalliga (n. 1), pl. 39.

68 Agora, xii. 129, 293, nos. 802–3, pl. 32.

69 Jehasse (n. 11), 53–4, nos. 306–7 (375–350 BC, local).

70 Salles (n. 44), 31, no. 29 (Attic).

71 Agora, xii, no. 831, pl. 33 (350–325 BC).

72 Alexandrescu (n. 62), 90, no. 593 (375–350 BC, Attic).

73 Agora, xii. 132.

74 Ibid., 132, 296, no. 839, pl. 33.

75 Kopcke 1992, 301, 370, no. 138 (275–325 BC).

76 Kabirion, iii. 45, no. 283 (end 4th c. BC, local).

77 Agora, xxix. 161–2. Before 325 BC the profile of the base had an outward curve.

78 Jehasse (n. 11), 44, no. 169 (probably local).

79 Cf. Agora, xii, nos. 760–2.

80 Kabirion, iii. 37, 133, no. 191, pl. 11 (400–375 BC, local).

81 Agora, xxix. 156, nos. 856, 857, pl. 71 (end 4th-early 3rd c. BC).

82 For similar examples, see Jones, E., Graham, A. J. and Sackett, L. H., ‘An Attic country house below the Cave of Pan at Vari’, BSA 68 (1973), 377, no. 24, fig. 6, pl. 72.

83 Olynthus, v. 234–40, nos. 895–942 and Olynthus, xiii. 334–44, nos 680–741. Also, Kopcke accepts a similar dating for the entire group of handleless bowls—which greatly resemble the one-handlers—from Tholos on Samothrace (Kopcke 1992, 298).

84 Cf. Corinth, vii. 68 (‘…the roots close together, the coil strongly tilted and in several the outer part of the loop recurving’).

85 Agora, xii, no. 762 (350–325 BC).

86 Kopcke 1992, 285, no. 30 (2nd half of 4th c. BC, probably Attic).

87 Kaltsas, N., ᾿Αχανϑος, i: Η ανασαφή στο νεχροταφείο χατά το 1979 (Athens, 1998), 147, nos. 1039–40, fig. 17, p1. 130 (350–325 BC).

88 Blondé (n. 38), 294–5, no. 63 (mid-4th c. BC. Attic).

89 Rotroff, S. I. and Oakley, J. H., Debris from a Public Dining Place in the Athenian Agora (Hesp. Supp. 25, Princeton, NJ, 1992), 28, no. 303, pl. 56 (375–350 BC).

90 Kopcke 1992, 286, no. 36 (end of 4th or beginning of the 3rd c. BC, local). In the case of 27, however, the squat body and short base of the vessel are arguments against a later dating.

91 Cf. Agora, xii, no. 753, pl. 31; Corinth, vii. 68–9, no. 311, pl. 51 (425–400 BC).

92 An identical handle from a single-handled bowl dating from the mid-4th c. BC was found in grave mound B at Aineia: Vokotopoulou, I., Οι ταφιχοί τύμβοι της Αίνειας (Athens, 1990), 81, 49, no. 7701. Also, Pemberton (n. 36), 93, no. 85, pl. 12 (mid-4th c. BC); Jones, Graham, and Sackett (n. 82), 377, no. 24, pl. 72, fig. 6 (mid-4th c. BC).

93 Vessels of this type are conventionally called ‘pre-Persian’, since large quantities of them were found in strata at Olynthus dating from before the Persian calamity, see Olynthus, v. 15–63. Jones, however, prefers the term ‘Chalkidic painted ware’, since the centres of production of these vessels were located in the region of Chalcidice, see Ol. T. Jones, ‘Chalkidic painted ware’, Arch. Eph. (1990), 177, 188.

94 Vokotopoulou, I., ‘Polychrono: a new archaeological site in Chalkidike’, in Descoeudres, T. P. (ed.), Ευμουσία: Ceramic and Iconographic Studies in Honour of Al. Cambitoglou (Sydney, 1990), 85–6.

95 For the sites where such vessels have been found to date, see Jones (n. 93), 177 n. 4, 189.

96 Vokotopoulou (n. 94), 85–6. Ionian influences had already been identified by the excavators of Olynthus, see Olynthus, v. 59–63; Olynthus, xiii. 5–7. For early parallel from Hephaestia (Lemnos), see Jones (n. 93), 189 n. 23.

97 A 92/1215, A 92/1216–18, A92/1222α+β, Σ 92/47.

98 Agora, xii. 196 nn. 6–7, nos. 1527, 1530 (510–480 BC and 420–400 BC respectively).

99 Vokotopoulou (n. 94), 85–6.

100 Yiouri, E., “Η χεραμειχὴ τῆς Χαλχιδιχῆς στὸν αλ. π.Χ.”, in Pantermalis, D., Romiopoulou, K., and Mavropoulou-Tsioumi, K. (eds), Κέρνος :Τιμητισηἠ προσφορἀ στὸν χαϑηγητὴ Γ. Μπαχαλάχν (Thessaloniki, 1972), 1314. The late dating of the ‘Pyrgadikia group’ has been contested by Vokotopoulou (n. 94), 85–6.

101 Soueref, K., ΑΕΜΘ 2 (1998), 249–50; id., ΑΕΜΘ 10 (1996), 399–400.

102 Tiverios, , Εγνατία, 3 (19911992), 209; Aik. Despoini, ΠΑΕ 1982, 63–5.

103 For examples, limited exclusively to good quality black-glaze pottery, see Pandi 1999, 42–5.

104 Despoini (n. 31), 61–84.

105 Blondé, Fr., “Παρατηρήσεις για την προσφορά της Θάσου στη μελέτη της πρώιμης ελληνιστιχής χεραμισής ᾿”, Γ Επιστημονιχή Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστιχή Κεραμιχή (Athens, 1994), 143; Jehasse (n. 11), 8.

106 For a brief overview of the history of pottery in Macedonia, see Drougou, St., Ελληνιστιχή Κεραμιχή από τη Μαχεδονία (Thessaloniki, 1991), 21–5; Drougou, St. and Touratsoglou, I., ‘Hellenistische Keramik aus Makedonien: chronologische Indizien’, AK 34 (1991), 1327; iid. “Πρώιμη ελληνιστιχή χεραμιχή από τη Μαχεδοvία: Ο πηλός χαι το μέταλλο”,Δ ́ Επιστημονιχή Συνάντηση για την Ελληνιστιχή Κεραμιχή (Athens, 1997), 15–163.

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Anchialos-Sindos Double Trapeza. Pit C: observations on the painted and black-glazed pottery of local fourth-century BC workshops

  • Kyriaki Kalliga (a1)

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