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Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses

  • C. Hurtaud (a1) (a2), J. L. Peyraud (a1) (a2), G. Michel (a3), D. Berthelot (a1) (a2) and L. Delaby (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of two feeding systems and two dairy cow breeds on milk yield and composition, physical and sensorial properties of Camembert and Pont-l’Evêque cheeses. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A low energy grass diet with only 15% of concentrate (LowGS) was compared with a high-energy maize silage diet with 30% concentrate (HighMS). Thirty-four Holstein (Ho) and 34 Normande (No) cows in early lactation were assigned to one of two feeding systems for a 6-week period. Cows on the LowGS feeding system had lower milk yield, fat and protein content. In both feeding systems, No cows had lower milk yields but higher milk protein contents than Ho cows. The LowGS feeding system altered milk fatty acid (FA) composition by reducing saturated FA. Breed had only a small impact on milk FA. Concerning milk coagulating properties, only the firmness was reduced by the LowGS feeding and the Ho breed. The effects of breed and feeding system on the protein content of cheeses were more marked in Camembert cheese than in Pont-l’Evêque cheese. However, the Camembert cheese from Ho-LowGS was, in fact, characterized especially by lower protein content. LowGS feeding system and No breed produced more yellow cheeses. Feeding systems had limited effects on the firmness of Camembert and Pont-l’Evêque cheeses measured by penetrometry. In sensory analysis, Ho breed and LowGS feeding produced a Camembert cheese with a more melting texture in the mouth due to the increase of spreadability index and of proteolysis. The type of cheese also had an influence: the effects were more important on Camembert cheese than on Pont-l’Evêque cheese. Only the Ho-LowGS treatment produced a very specific Camembert cheese different from the others. The feeding systems and breed of dairy cow have no determinant effect on PDO (protected designation of origin) Camembert and Pont-l’Evêque cheeses, especially regarding taste. In this kind of trial, despite the effects of feeding systems and breed on milk composition, the role of cheese ripening and microbiology appears to be of considerable importance.

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Keywords

Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses

  • C. Hurtaud (a1) (a2), J. L. Peyraud (a1) (a2), G. Michel (a3), D. Berthelot (a1) (a2) and L. Delaby (a1) (a2)...

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