Abril-Sanchez, S, Freitas-de-melo, A, Damián, JP, Giriboni, J, Villagrá-García, A and Ungerfeld, R 2017. Ejaculation does not contribute to the stress response to electroejaculation in sheep. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 52, 403–408.
Aktas, M, Auguste, D, Lefebvre, HP, Toutain, PL and Braun, JP 1993. Creatine kinase in the dog: A review. Veterinary Research Communications 17, 353–369.
Al-Qarawi, AA and Ali, BH 2005. Isolation stress in desert sheep and goats and the influence of pretreatment with xylazine or sodium betaine. Veterinary Research Communications 29, 81–90.
Anil, SS, Anil, L and Deen, J 2002. Challenges of pain assessment in domestic animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 220, 313–319.
Bath, G 1998. Management of pain in production animals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59, 147–156.
Beracochea, F, Gil, J, Sestelo, A, Garde, JJ, Santiago-Moreno, J, Fumagalli, F and Ungerfeld, R 2014. Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Animal Reproduction Science 149, 224–230.
Bille, C, Auvigne, V, Libermann, S, Bomassi, E, Durieux, P and Rattez, E 2012. Risk of anaesthetic mortality in dogs and cats: an observational cohort study of 3546 cases. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 39, 59–68.
Brodbelt, DC, Blissitt, KJ, Hammond, RA, Neath, PJ, Young, LE, Pfeiffer, DU and Wood, JLN 2008. The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 35, 365–373.
Busso, JM, Ponzio, MF, Chiaraviglio, M, Fiol De Cuneo, M and Ruiz, RD 2005. Electroejaculation in the Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera): effects of anesthesia on seminal characteristics. Research in Veterinary Science 78, 93–97.
Campbell, RC, Dott, HM and Glover, TD 1956. Nigrosin eosin as a stain for differentiating live and dead spermatozoa. The Journal of Agricultural Science 48, 1–8.
Carroll, GL and Hartsfield, SM 1996. General anesthetic techniques in ruminants. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 12, 627–661.
Damián, JP and Ungerfeld, R 2011. The stress response of frequently electroejaculated rams to electroejaculation: hormonal, physiological, biochemical, haematological and behavioural parameters. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 46, 646–650.
Dooley, MP, Pineda, MH, Hopper, JG and Hsu, WH 1990. Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after sedation with xylazine. American Journal of Veterinary Research 51, 1574–1579.
Dooley, MP, Pineda, MH, Hopper, JG and Hsu, WH 1991. Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of cats during electroejaculation, collection of semen with an artificial vagina, and mating. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52, 687–691.
Evans, G and Maxwell, WMC 1987. Salamon’s artificial insemination of sheep and goats. Butterworths, Sydney, Australia.
Falk, AJ, Waldner, CL, Cotter, BS, Gudmundson, J and Barth, AD 2001. Effects of epidural lidocaine anesthesia on bulls during electroejaculation. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 42, 116–120.
Firth, AM and Haldane, SL 1999. Development of a scale to evaluate postoperative pain in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214, 651–659.
Fumagalli, F, Damián, J and Ungerfeld, R 2015. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 50, 321–326.
Grandin, T 1997. Assessment of stress during handling and transport. Journal of Animal Science 75, 249–257.
Ismail, ZB, Jawasreh, K and Al-Majali, A 2010. Effects of xylazine-ketamine-diazepam anesthesia on blood cell counts and plasma biochemical values in sheep and goats. Comparative Clinical Pathology 19, 571–574.
Jennings, DJ 2007. The effect of chemical immobilization on dominance rank in the fallow deer. Animal Behaviour 74, 1107–1110.
Jeyendran, RS, Van der Ven, HH, Perez-Pelaez, M, Crabo, BG and Zaneveld, LJD 1984. Development of an assay to assess the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane and its relationship to other semen characteristics. Journal of reproduction and fertility 70, 219–228.
Knight, TW 1974. A qualitative study of factors affecting the contractions of the epididymis and ductus deferens of the ram. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 40, 19–29.
McDonnell, SM 2001. Oral imipramine and intravenous xylazine for pharmacologically-induced ex copula ejaculation in stallions. Animal Reproduction Science 68, 153–159.
Mcdonnell, SM and Love, C 1991. Xylazine-induced ex copula ejaculation in stallions. Theriogenology 36, 73–76.
McLennan, KM, Rebelo, CJB, Corke, MJ, Holmes, MA, Leach, MC and Constantino-Casas, F 2016. Development of a facial expression scale using footrot and mastitis as models of pain in sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 176, 19–26.
Moberg, GP 2000. Biological response to stress: implications for animal welfare. In The biology of animal stress (ed. GP Moberg and JA Mench), pp 1–21. CAB International, Wallingford, UK and New York, NY, USA.
Orihuela, A, Aguirre, V, Hernandez, C, Flores-Perez, I and Vazquez, R 2009a. Effect of anesthesia on welfare aspects of hair sheep (Ovis aries) during electro-ejaculation. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 8, 305–308.
Orihuela, A, Aguirre, V, Hernandez, C, Flores-Perez, I and Vazquez, R 2009b. Breaking down the effect of electro-ejaculation on the serum cortisol response, heart and respiratory rates in hair sheep (Ovis aries). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 8, 1968–1972.
Palmer, CW 2005. Welfare aspects of theriogenology: investigating alternatives to electroejaculation of bulls. Theriogenology 64, 469–479.
Patt, A, Gygax, L, Wechsler, B, Hillmann, E, Palme, R and Keil, NM 2013. Factors influencing the welfare of goats in small established groups during the separation and reintegration of individuals. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 144, 63–72.
Pelletier, F, Hogg, JT and Festa-Bianchet, M 2004. Effect of chemical immobilization on social status of bighorn rams. Animal Behaviour 67, 1163–1165.
Pursel, VG and Johnson, LA 1974. Glutaraldehyde fixation of boar spermatozoa for acrosome evaluation. Theriogenology 1, 63–68.
Price, EO and Thos, J 1980. Behavioral responses to short-term social isolation in sheep and goats. Applied Animal. Ethology 6, 331–339.
Provenza, FD, Lynch, JJ and Nolan, JV 1994. Food aversion conditioned in anesthetized sheep. Physiology & Behavior 55, 429–432.
Prunier, A, Mounier, L, Le Neindre, P, Leterrier, C, Morméde, P, Paulmier, V, Prunet, P, Terlouw, C and Guatteo, R 2013. Identifying and monitoring pain in farm animals: a review. Animal 7, 998–1010.
Rushen, J 2000. Some issues in the interpretation of behavioural responses to stress. In The biology of animal stress (ed. GP Moberg and JA Mench), pp 23–42. CAB International, Wallingford, UK and New York, NY, USA.
Seddighi, R and Doherty, TJ 2016. Field sedation and anesthesia of ruminants. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 32, 553–570.
Smith, GM, Fry, JM, Allen, JG and Costa, ND 1994. Plasma indicators of muscle damage in a model of nutritional myopathy in weaner sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal 71, 12–17.
Stafford, KJ 1995. Electroejaculation: a welfare issue. Surveillance 22, 15–17.
Stafford, KJ, Spoorenberg, J, West, DM, Vermunt, JJ, Petrie, N and Lawoko, CR 1996. The effect of electro-ejaculation on aversive behaviour and plasma cortisol concentration in rams. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 44, 95–98.
Taylor, PM 1991. Anaesthesia in sheep and goats. In Practice 22, 126–135.
Watson, PF 1976. Electroejaculation, semen characteristics and semen preservation of the brindled gnu. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 47, 123–126.
Wewers, ME and Lowe, NK 1990. A critical review of visual analogue scales in the measurement of clinical phenomena. Research in Nursing & Health 13, 227–236.
Whitlock, BK, Coffman, EA, Coetzee, JF and Daniel, JA 2012. Electroejaculation increased vocalization and plasma concentrations of cortisol and progesterone, but not substance P, in beef bulls. Theriogenology 78, 737–746.
Zambelli, D, Cunto, M, Prati, F and Merlo, B 2007. Effects of ketamine or medetomidine administration on quality of electroejaculated sperm and on sperm flow in the domestic cat. Theriogenology 68, 796–803.