Skip to main content Accessibility help

Requirement of standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio for 8- to 14-kg pigs

  • E. A. Soumeh (a1), J. van Milgen (a2) (a3), N. M. Sloth (a4), E. Corrent (a5), H. D. Poulsen (a1) and J. V. Nørgaard (a1)...


The objective was to define the Val requirement for weaned piglets in the context of reducing the dietary protein content. A dose–response experiment was conducted to estimate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val to Lys ratio required to support the optimum growth of post-weaned piglets. In this study, 96 pigs weighing 8 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments (16 pigs for each dietary treatment) and were housed individually. Diets were formulated to provide 0.58, 0.62, 0.66, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.78 SID Val : Lys by adding graded levels of crystalline l-Val to the 0.58 SID Val : Lys diet. Lysine was sub-limiting and supplied 90% of the recommendation (10.95 g SID Lys/kg equal to 11.8 g/kg total Lys). Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G : F) were determined during a 14-day period of ad libitum feeding. Blood and urine samples were taken at the end of each week (day 7 and 14 of the experiment) 3 h after feeding the experimental diets. The maximum ADFI and ADG were obtained in pigs fed the 0.78 SID Val : Lys diet; it was not different from the results of pigs fed 0.70 SID Val : Lys diet. The highest G : F was obtained in pigs fed 0.70 SID Val : Lys. The plasma concentration of Val increased linearly (P<0.001) as the dietary SID Val : Lys increased. The increasing dietary Val : Lys also resulted in a linear increase in Cys (P<0.001) and a quadratic increase in Arg (P=0.003), Lys (P=0.05) and Phe (P=0.009). The plasma Gly showed a quadratic decrease (P=0.05) as the dietary Val : Lys increased. Neither plasma nor urinary urea to creatinine ratio was affected by treatment. The minimum SID Val : Lys required to maximize ADFI, ADG and G : F was estimated at 0.67 SID Val : Lys by a broken-line model, and at 0.71 SID Val : Lys by a curvilinear plateau model. The Val deficiency caused a reduction in ADFI, and Val supplementation above the requirement did not impair animal performance. In conclusion, 0.70 SID Val : Lys is suggested as the Val requirement for 8 to 14 kg individually housed pigs.


Corresponding author


Hide All
AOAC International 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 17th edition. AOAC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Barea, R, Brossard, L, Le Floc’h, N, Primot, Y and van Milgen, J 2009. The standardized ileal digestible isoleucine-to-lysine requirement ratio may be less than fifty percent in eleven- to twenty-three-kilogram piglets. Journal of Animal Science 87, 40224031.
Bohé, J, Low, A, Wolfe, RR and Rennie, MJ 2003. Human muscle protein synthesis is modulated by extracellular, not intramuscular amino acid availability: a dose-response study. The Journal of Physiology 552, 315324.
Boisen, S 2003. Ideal dietary amino acid profiles for pigs. In Amino acids in animal nutrition (ed. J D’Mello), pp. 157168. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Boisen, S, Hvelplund, T and Weisbjerg, MR 2000. Ideal amino acid profiles as a basis for feed protein evaluation. Livestock Production Science 64, 239251.
Brown, JA and Cline, TR 1974. Urea excretion in the pig: an indicator of protein quality and amino acid requirements. The Journal of Nutrition 104, 542545.
BSAS 2003. Nutrient requirement standards for pigs. British Society of Animal Science, 28pp.
de Haer, LCM, Luiting, P and Aarts, HLM 1993. Relations among individual (residual) feed intake, growth performance and feed intake pattern of growing pigs in group housing. Livestock Production Science 36, 233253.
Dean, DW, Southern, LL, Kerr, BJ and Bidner, TD 2005. Isoleucine requirement of 80- to 120-kilogram barrows fed corn-soybean meal or corn-blood cell diets. Journal of Animal Science 83, 25432553.
Dourmad, JY, Guingand, N, Latimier, P and Sève, B 1999. Nitrogen and phosphorus consumption, utilisation and losses in pig production: France. Livestock Production Science 58, 199211.
European Commission 1998. Commission Directive 98/64/EC of 3 September 1998 establishing Community methods of analysis for the determination of amino-acids, crude oils and fats, and olaquindox in feedingstuffs and amending Directive 71/393/EEC. Official Journal of the European Communities, Eur-Lex. Retrieved October 28, 2014, from
Figueroa, JL, Lewis, AJ, Miller, PS, Fischer, RL and Diedrichsen, RM 2003. Growth, carcass traits, and plasma amino acid concentrations of gilts fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids including histidine, isoleucine, and valine. Journal of Animal Science 81, 15291537.
Gaines, AM, Kendall, DC, Allee, GL, Usry, JL and Kerr, BJ 2011. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine-to-lysine ratio in 13- to 32-kilogram pigs. Journal of Animal Science 89, 736742.
Gloaguen, M, Le Floc’h, N, Corrent, E, Primot, Y and van Milgen, J 2012. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 90, 31353142.
Gloaguen, M, Le Floc’h, N, Brossard, L, Barea, R, Primot, Y, Corrent, E and van Milgen, J 2011. Response of piglets to the valine content in diet in combination with the supply of other branched-chain amino acids. Animal 5, 17341742.
Gloaguen, M, Le Floc’h, N and van Milgen, J 2013. Couverture des besoins en acides aminés chez le porcelet alimenté avec des régimes à basse teneur en protéines. INRA Prod. Anim 26, 277288.
Hansen, MJ, Nørgaard, JV, Adamsen, APS and Poulsen, HD 2014. Effect of reduced crude protein on ammonia, methane, and chemical odorants emitted from pig houses. Livestock Science 169, 118124.
Harper, AE, Miller, RH and Block, KP 1984. Branched chain amino acid metabolism. Annual Review of Nutrition 4, 409454.
Kaneko, JJ, Harvey, JW and Bruss, ML 1998. Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals, 5th edition. Veterinary Research Communications 22, 293294.
Mavromichalis, I, Webel, DM, Emmert, JL, Moser, RL and Baker, DH 1998. Limiting order of amino acids in a low-protein corn-soybean meal-whey-based diet for nursery pigs. Journal of Animal Science 76, 28332837.
Nørgaard, JV and Fernández, JA 2009. Isoleucine and valine supplementation of crude protein-reduced diets for pigs aged 5–8 weeks. Animal Feed Science and Technology 154, 248253.
Nørgaard, JV, Hansen, MJ, Soumeh, EA, Adamsen, APS and Poulsen, HD 2014. Effect of protein level on performance, nitrogen utilisation and carcass composition in finisher pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science 64, 17.
Nielsen, BL, Lawrence, AB and Whittemore, CT 1996. Effect of individual housing on the feeding behaviour of previously group housed growing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 47, 149161.
NRC 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. National Academy Press, Washington, USA.
Parr, TM, Kerr, BJ and Baker, DH 2003. Isoleucine requirement of growing (25 to 45 kg) pigs. Journal of Animal Science 81, 745752.
Parr, TM, Kerr, BJ and Baker, DH 2004. Isoleucine requirement for late-finishing (87 to 100 kg) pigs. Journal of Animal Science 82, 13341338.
Pedersen, C and Boisen, S 2001. Studies on the response time for plasma urea nitrogen as a rapid measure for dietary protein quality in pigs. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science 51, 209216.
Robbins, KR, Saxton, AM and Southern, LL 2006. Estimation of nutrient requirements using broken-line regression analysis. Journal of Animal Science 84, E155E165.
Soumeh, EA, van Milgen, J, Sloth, NM, Corrent, E, Poulsen, HD and Nørgaard, JV 2014. The optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible isoleucine to lysine for 8 to 19 kg pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 198, 158165.
Tybirk, P, Sloth, NM and Jørgensen, L 2012. Nutrient requirements. Retrieved on August 10, 2012, from
Van Milgen, J, Gloaguen, M, Le Floc’h, N, Brossard, L, Primot, Y and Corrent, E 2013. Meta-analysis of the response of growing pigs to valine content of the diet. In Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition in sustainable animal production (ed. JW Oltjen, E Kebreab and H Lapierre), No. 134, pp 339340. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Waguespack, AM, Bidner, TD, Payne, RL and Southern, LL 2012. Valine and isoleucine requirement of 20- to 45-kilogram pigs. Journal of Animal Science 90, 22762284.
Wiltafsky, MK, Bartelt, J, Relandeau, C and Roth, FX 2009. Estimation of the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible isoleucine to lysine for eight- to twenty-five-kilogram pigs in diets containing spray-dried blood cells or corn gluten feed as a protein source. Journal of Animal Science 87, 25542564.


Requirement of standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio for 8- to 14-kg pigs

  • E. A. Soumeh (a1), J. van Milgen (a2) (a3), N. M. Sloth (a4), E. Corrent (a5), H. D. Poulsen (a1) and J. V. Nørgaard (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed