Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Recovery of intravenously infused chromium EDTA and lithium sulphate in the urine of cattle and their use as markers to measure urine volume

  • M. K. Bowen (a1) (a2), D. P. Poppi (a1) and S. R. McLennan (a2)

Abstract

A series of metabolism experiments investigated the recovery of continuous-, intravenously infused chromium complexed with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (CrEDTA) and lithium sulphate in the urine of cattle with a view to using the markers to estimate urine and metabolite output in grazing cattle. The recovery of Cr in urine from these infusions was similar (90%) in metabolism trials when cattle consumed three very contrasting diets: high-grain formulated pellet, lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) or low-quality native grass hay (predominantly Heteropogon contortus). By contrast, Li recovery in urine averaged 46.3 ± 0.40% and 72.6 ± 0.43% for native pasture and lucerne hays, respectively, but was not constant across days. There was negligible transfer of Cr from CrEDTA in blood serum to the rumen or faeces, whereas appreciable quantities of infused Li were found in both. The ratio of urine volume estimated by spot samples and marker dilution of Cr, to urine volume measured gravimetrically, was 1.05. In grazing studies using rumen-fistulated (RF) steers grazing seven different tropical and temperate grass and legume pastures, the ratio of concentrations of purine derivatives (PD) to Cr in spot samples of urine was shown to vary diurnally in the range of 49% to 157% of the average 24 h value. This finding indicated the need for regular sampling of urine to achieve an accurate average value for the PD : Cr ratio in urine for use in estimating urinary PD excretion and hence microbial protein production in the rumen. It was concluded that continuous, intravenous infusion of CrEDTA resulted in a constant recovery of Cr in the urine of cattle across diets and, provided an intensive sampling regime was followed to account for diurnal variation, it would be suitable as a marker to estimate urine volume and urinary output of PD in grazing cattle.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Balcells, J, Guada, JA, Pieró, JM 1992. Simultaneous determination of allantoin and oxypurines in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography: Biomedical Applications 575, 153157.
Bannink, A, Valk, H, Van Vuuren, AM 1999. Intake and excretion of sodium, potassium, and nitrogen and the effects on urine production by lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 10081018.
Bowen, MK 2003. Efficiency of microbial protein production in cattle grazing tropical pastures. PhD, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
Bowen, MK, McCosker, K, McLennan, SR, Poppi, DP 2003. The development of a novel method to estimate microbial protein production in grazing Brahman crossbred cattle. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 3, 365367.
Chen, XB, Gomes, MJ 1995. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives: an overview of the technical details. International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK.
Chen, XB, Hovell, FDD, Orskov, ER, Brown, DS 1990. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: effect of exogenous nucleic acid supply on purine derivative excretion by sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 63, 131142.
Chen, XB, Susmel, P, Stefanon, BØrskov, ER 1995. On the use of purine derivatives in spot urine, plasma and milk samples as indicators of microbial protein supply in sheep and cattle. In Protein metabolism and nutrition. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Vale de Santarem – Portugal (ed. AF Nunes), pp. 325–329. European Association of Animal Production, Estacao Zootecnia, Instituto Nacional de Investigacao Agraria, Portugal.
Church, DC 1979. Digestive physiology and nutrition of ruminants. Nutrition, vol. 2. O&B Books, Corvallis, OR, USA.
Corbett, JL 1976. Nutritional aspects of the growth of grazing animals. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 11, 281288.
Cruickshank, GJ, Poppi, DP, Sykes, AR 1992. The intake, digestion and protein degradation of grazed herbage by early weaned lambs. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 349364.
Dixon, RM, Smith, DR, Reid, A 2003. Lithium salts as a marker of intake of supplements by cattle. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43, 3746.
Downes, AM, McDonald, IW 1964. The chromium-51 complex of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as a soluble rumen marker. British Journal of Nutrition 18, 153162.
Faichney, GJ 1975. The use of markers to partition digestion within the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants. In Digestion and metabolism in the ruminant (ed. IW McDonald and ACI Warner), pp. 277291. University of New England Publishing Unit, Armidale.
Faichney, GJ, Welch, RJ, Brown, GH 1995. Prediction of the excretion of allantoin and total purine derivatives by sheep from the ‘creatinine coefficient’. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 125, 425428.
Fogh-Andersen, N 1980. Binding of the chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex (CrEDTA) to human albumin. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 40, 805808.
Foss Tecator 2002a. Application sub-note ASN 3805. The determination of neutral detergent fibre using the fibercap system. Foss Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden.
Foss Tecator 2002b. Application sub-note ASN 3804. The determination of acid detergent fibre using the fibercap system. Foss Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden.
Furst, A, Radding, S, Wurzel, K 1998. Chromium (Cr). In Encyclopedia of toxicology (ed. P Wexler), pp. 340342. Academic Press, San Diego.
Genstat Committee 2000. The guide to Genstat part 2: statistics. VSN International Ltd, Oxford, UK.
Harrison, FA, Mangan, JL, Hill, KJ 1963. Absorption and excretion of lithium and magnesium in the sheep. Biochemical Journal 89, 99100.
Lowry, JB, Sumpter, EA, McSweeney, CS, Schlink, AC, Bowden, B 1993. Phenolic acids in the fibre of some tropical grasses, effect on feed quality, and their metabolism by sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 44, 11231133.
Schonewille, JT, Beynen, AC 1999. Lithium chloride as a reference substance for urine collection in goats. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 47, 150151.
Siebert, BD, Romero, VA, Hunter, RA, Megarrity, RG, Lynch, JJ, Glasgow, JD, Breen, MJ 1978. Partitioning intake and outflow of nitrogen and water in cattle grazing tropical pastures. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 631644.
Stacy, BD, Thorburn, GD 1966. Chromium-51 ethylenediaminetetraacetate for estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Science 152, 10761077.
Suharyono, 1992. Estimation of dietary supplement intake in sheep, using LiCl as a marker. MSc, The University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
Sweeney, RA 1989. Generic combustion method for determination of crude protein in feeds. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 72, 770774.
Ulyatt, MJ 1964. The suitability of lithium as a marker for estimating rumen water volume in sheep. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 774778.
Verbic, J, Chen, XB, MacLeod, NA, Ørskov, ER 1990. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants. Effect of microbial nucleic acid infusion on purine derivative excretion by steers. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 114, 243248.
Walker, DMHawley, KE 1965. The measurement of the rumen fluid volume using lithium and polyethylene glycol. Proceedings of the 9th International Grassland Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, pp. 759–761.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed