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Pudong White pig: a unique genetic resource disclosed by sequencing data

  • Q. Xiao (a1), Z. Zhang (a1), H. Sun (a1), Q. Wang (a1) (a2) and Y. Pan (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

Pudong White (PW) pigs are distributed in the Taihu region of China and are characterized by their completely white coats. A heated debate concerning this genetic resource and its relationship to Taihu and western pig breeds has arisen, due to the white coat of the animals. To determine whether PW is a unique genetic resource, we performed a detailed assessment of the genetic relationships among PW, six breeds from the Taihu population and three western pig breeds, based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. A total of 68 102 SNPs were identified in the genomes of the tested populations by next-generation sequencing technology, of which, 64 were determined as the potentially specific to PW breed. The genetic distance between PW pigs and the Taihu population was shorter than that between PW and western breeds. The genetic distance within the PW population was small and neighbour-joining tree analysis revealed that all PW individuals clustered into a separated group, indicating a close genetic relationship among PW individuals which may result from a small effective population size (N e ) and inbreeding. The results of both principal component analysis and evaluation using fastSTRUCTURE demonstrated that PW was clearly differentiated from other breeds. Together, these results indicate that PW is a distinctive genetic resource with a unique genetic structure separate from other Taihu and western pig breeds. Furthermore, this genome-wide comprehensive survey of the relationships among PW, Taihu and western pig breeds, demonstrates the rationality of the current breed classification of PW. The results also provide evidence about the unique genetic resource of PW, based on genome-wide genetic markers. These data will improve our understanding of the genetic structure and current state of PW breed, and facilitate the development of a national project for the conservation and utilization of these pigs.

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