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Performance of piglets in response to the standardized ileal digestible phenylalanine and tyrosine supply in low-protein diets

  • M. Gloaguen (a1) (a2), N. Le Floc’h (a1) (a2), Y. Primot (a3), E. Corrent (a3) and J. van Milgen (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

Reducing the CP level of the diet allows for a reduction in N excretion without limiting performance as long as the amino acid (AA) requirements are covered. The availability of crystalline AA has permitted for a considerable reduction in the CP level of diets, practically used in pig nutrition. The adoption of low CP diets and the extent to which the CP content can be reduced further depends on the knowledge of the minimum levels of indispensable AA that maximize growth. The standardized ileal digestible (SID) Phe : Lys and Tyr : Lys requirements and the possibility to substitute Tyr by Phe have never been studied in piglets. The objectives of this study were to estimate these requirements in 10 to 20 kg pig as well as to determine the extent to which Phe can be used to cover the Tyr requirement. In three dose–response studies, six pigs within each of 14 blocks were assigned to six low CP diets (14.5% CP) sub-limiting in Lys at 1.00% SID. In experiment 1, the SID Phe : Lys requirement estimate was assessed by supplementing a Phe-deficient diet with different levels of l-Phe to attain 33%, 39%, 46%, 52%, 58%, and 65% SID Phe : Lys. Because Phe can be used for Tyr synthesis, the diets provided a sufficient Tyr supply. A similar approach was used in experiment 2 with six levels of l-Tyr supplementation to attain 21%, 27%, 33%, 39%, 45% and 52% SID Tyr : Lys. Phenylalanine was supplied at a level sufficient to sustain maximum growth (estimated in experiment 1). The SID Phe : Lys and SID Tyr : Lys requirements for maximizing daily gain were 54% and 40% using a curvilinear-plateau model, respectively. A 10% deficiency in Phe and Tyr reduced daily gain by 3.0% and 0.7%, respectively. In experiment 3, the effect of the equimolar substitution of dietary SID Tyr by Phe to obtain 50%, 57%, and 64% SID Phe : (Phe+Tyr) was studied at two limiting levels of Phe+Tyr. From 57% to 64% SID Phe : (Phe+Tyr), performance was slightly reduced. In conclusion, it is recommended not to use a Phe+Tyr requirement in the ideal AA profile but rather use a SID Phe : Lys of 54% and a SID Tyr : Lys of 40% to support maximal growth.

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