Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1998. Animal feed. Official methods of analysis, vol. 1, 16th edition, Chap. 4, pp. 1–45. AOAC, Gaithersburg, MA, USA.
Benjamin, S, Spener, F 2009. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits. Nutrition and Metabolism 18, 6–36.
Bhattacharyaa, A, Banua, J, Rahmana, M, Causeyb, J, Fernandes, G 2006. Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids in health and disease. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 17, 789–810.
Brouwer, IA, Wanders, AJ, Katan, MB 2010. Effect of animal and industrial trans fatty acids on HDL and LDL cholesterol levels in humans – a quantitative review. PLoS One 5, e9434.
Devillard, E, McIntosh, FM, Newbold, CJ, Wallace, RJ 2006. Rumen ciliate protozoa contain high concentrations of conjugated linoleic acids and vaccenic acid, yet do not hydrogenate linoleic acid or desaturate stearic acid. British Journal of Nutrition 96, 697–704.
Enjalbert, F, Troegeler-Meynadier, A 2009. Biosynthesis of trans fatty acids in ruminants. In Trans fatty acids in human nutrition (ed. F Destaillats, JL Sébédio, F Dionisi and JM Chardigny), pp. 1–31. The Oily Press, Bridgwater, UK.
Griinari, JM, Dwyer, DA, McGuire, MA, Bauman, DE, Palmquist, DL, Nurmela, KVV 1998. Trans-octadecenoic acids and milk fat depression in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 1251–1261.
Harfoot, CG, Noble, RC, Moore, JH 1973. Factors influencing the extent of biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen micro-organisms in vitro. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 24, 961–970.
Ip, MM, McGee, SO, Masso-Welch, PA, Ip, C, Meng, X, Ou, L, Shoemaker, SF 2007. The t10,c12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in transgenic mice over-expressing erbB2 in the mammary epithelium. Carcinogenesis 28, 1269–1276.
Kepler, CR, Tove, SB 1967. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. Purification and properties of a linoleate delta-12-cis, delta-11-trans-isomerase from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Journal of Biological Chemistry 242, 5686–5692.
Kim, YJ, Liu, RH, Rychlik, JL, Russell, JB 2002. The enrichment of a ruminal bacterium (Megasphaera elsdenii YJ-4) that produces the trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid. Journal of Applied Microbiology 92, 976–982.
Klieve, AV, Hennessy, D, Ouwerkerk, D, Forster, RJ, Mackie, RI, Attwood, GT 2003. Establishing populations of Megasphaera elsdenii YE 34 and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens YE 44 in the rumen of cattle fed high grain diets. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95, 621–630.
Loor, JJ, Ueda, K, Ferlay, A, Chilliard, Y, Doreau, M 2004. Biohydrogenation, duodenal flow, and intestinal digestibility of trans-fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in response to dietary forage: concentrate ratio and linseed oil in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 2472–2485.
Maia, MR, Chaudhary, LC, Bestwick, CS, Richardson, AJ, McKain, N, Larson, TR, Graham, IA, Wallace, RJ 2010. Toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids to the biohydrogenating ruminal bacterium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. BMC Microbiology 18, 10–52.
Offer, NW, Marsden, M, Phipps, RH 2001. Effect of oil supplementation of a diet containing a high concentration of starch on levels of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in bovine milk. Animal Science 73, 533–540.
Park, PW, Goins, RE 1994. In situ preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for analysis of fatty acid composition in foods. Journal of Food Science 59, 1262–1266.
Piperova, LS, Sampugna, L, Teter, BB, Kalscheur, KF, Yurawecz, MP, Ku, Y, Morehouse, KM, Erdman, RA 2002. Duodenal and milk trans octadecanoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers indicate that postabsorptive synthesis is the predominant source of cis-9-containing CLA in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Nutrition 132, 1235–1241.
Pottier, J, Focant, M, Debier, C, De Buysser, G, Goffe, C, Mignolet, E, Froidmont, E, Larondelle, Y 2006. Effect of dietary vitamin E on rumen biohydrogenation pathways and milk fat depression in dairy cows fed high-fat diets. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 685–692.
Roy, A, Ferlay, A, Shingfield, KJ, Chilliard, Y 2006. Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to plant oils in cows given different basal diets, with particular emphasis on trans-C18:1 fatty acids and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Animal Science 82, 479–492.
Shingfield, KJ, Griinari, JM 2007. Role of biohydrogenation intermediates in milk fat depression. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109, 799–816.
Shingfield, KJ, Reynolds, CK, Hervas, G, Griinari, JM, Grandison, AS, Beever, DE 2006. Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid responses to fish oil and sunflower oil in the diet of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 714–732.
Shingfield, KJ, Ahvenjärvi, S, Toivonen, V, Ärölä, A, Nurmela, KVV, Huhtanen, P, Griinari, JM 2003. Effect of fish oil on biohydrogenation of fatty acids and milk fatty acid content in cows. Animal Science 77, 165–179.
Tardy, AL, Morio, B, Chardigny, JM, Malpuech-Brugère, C 2011. Ruminant and industrial sources of trans-fat and cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. Nutrition Research Reviews 24, 111–117.
Troegeler-Meynadier, A, Bret-Bennis, L, Enjalbert, F 2006. Rates and efficiencies of reactions of ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid according to pH and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrations. Reproduction Nutrition Development 46, 713–724.
Troegeler-Meynadier, A, Nicot, MC, Bayourthe, C, Moncoulon, R, Enjalbert, F 2003. Effects of pH and concentrations of linoleic and linolenic acids on extent and intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation in vitro. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 4054–4063.
Van Nevel, CJ, Demeyer, DI 1996. Influence of pH on lipolysis and biohydrogenation of soybean rumen contents in vitro. Reproduction Nutrition Development 36, 53–63.
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB, Lewis, BA 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 3583–3597.
Verhulst, A, Janssen, G, Parmentier, G, Eyssen, H 1987. Isomerization of polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids by propionibacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 9, 12–15.
Wallace, RJ, McKain, N, Shingfield, KJ, Devillard, E 2007. Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids are synthesized via different mechanisms in ruminal digesta and bacteria. Journal of Lipid Research 48, 2247–2254.