Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality

  • M. Barahona (a1), J. L. Olleta (a1), C. Sañudo (a1), P. Albertí (a2), B. Panea (a2), M. Pérez-Juan (a3), C. E. Realini (a3) and M. M. Campo (a1)...


Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA.


Corresponding author



Hide All
Aalhus, JL 1992. Edible meat by-products: advances in meat research. Food Research International 25, 8384.
Albertí, P, Beriain, MJ, Ripoll, G, Sarriés, V, Panea, B, Mendizabal, JA, Purroy, A, Olleta, JL and Sañudo, C 2014. Effect of including linseed in a concentrated fed to young bulls on intramuscular fatty acids and beef color. Meat Science 99, 12581265.
Albertí, P, Gómez, I, Mendizabal, JA, Ripoll, G, Barahona, M, Sarriés, V, Isausti, K, Beriain, M J, Purroy, A and Realini, C 2013. Effect of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated acid enriched diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and adipose tissue development in young Holstein bulls. Meat Science 94, 208214.
AOAC 1990. Association of official analytical chemists. AOAC, Washington, DC, USA.
Barnes, KM, Winslow, NR, Shelton, AG, Hlusko, KC and Azain, MJ 2012. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on marbling and intramuscular adipocytes in pork. Journal of Animal Science 90, 11421149.
Barton, L, Marounek, M, Kudrna, V, Bures, D and Zahradkova, R 2007. Growth performance and fatty acid profile of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from Limousin and Charolois heifers fed extruded linseed. Meat Science 76, 517523.
Campo, MM, Nute, GR, Wood, J D, Elmore, SJ, Mottram, DS and Enser, M 2003. Modelling the effect of fatty acids in odour development of cooked meat in vitro: Part I-sensory perception. Meat Science 63, 367375.
Campo, MM, Sañudo, C, Panea, B, Albertí, P and Santolaria, P 1999. Breed type and ageing time effects on sensory characteristics of beef strip loin steaks. Meat Science 51, 383390.
Chriki, S, Renand, G, Picard, B, Micol, D, Journaux, L and Hocquette, JP 2013. Meta-analysis of the realitonships beef tenderness and muscle characteristics. Livestock Science 155, 424434.
CIE 1976. Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, 18th session, September 1975. CIE Publication 36, London, UK.
Coulon, JB and Priolo, A 2002. Influence of forage feeding on the composition and organoleptic properties of meat and dairy products: bases for a “terroir” effect. In Proceedings of the 19th general meeting of the European Grassland Federation, May 2002. (ed. JL Durand, JC Emile, C Huyghe and G Lemaire), pp. 513524. Organizing Committee of the 19th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, La Rochelle, France.
Destefanis, G, Barge, MT, Brugiapaliaga, A and Tassone, S 2000. The use of principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize beef. Meat Science 56, 255259.
Dunshea, FR, D’Souza, DN, Pethick, DW, Harper, GS and Warner, RD 2005. Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Science 71, 838.
Elmore, JS, Mottram, DS, Enser, M and Wood, JD 1999. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of beef muscle on the profile of aroma volatiles. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 47, 16161625.
Gomez, I, Mendizabal, JA, Sarries, MV, Insausti, K, Alberti, P, Realini, C, Perez-Juan, M, Oliver, MA, Purroy, A and Beriain, MJ 2015. Fatty acid composition of young Holstein bulls fed whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets. Livestock Science 180, 106112.
Honikel, KO 1998. References methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science 49, 447457.
Jeremiah, LE and Gibson, LL 2003. The effects of postmortem product handling and aging time on beef palatability. Food Research International 36, 929941.
Juárez, M, Dugan, MER, Aldai, N, Basarab, JA, Baron, VS, McAllister, TA and Aalhus, JL 2012. Beef quality attributes as affected by increasing the intramuscular levels of vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids. Meat Science 90, 764769.
Koohmaraie, M 1996. Biochemical factors regulating the toughening and tenderization processes of meat. Meat Science 43, 193201.
LaBrune, HJ, Reinhardt, CD, Dikeman, ME and Drouillard, JS 2008. Effects of grain processing and dietary lipid source on performance, carcass characteristics, plasma fatty acids, and sensory properties of steaks from finishing cattle. Journal of Animal Science 86, 167172.
Lawrie, RA and Ledward, DA 2006. The structure and growth of muscle: Lawrie’s meat science, 7th edition, pp. 42127. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, England.
Lee, KT and Yoon, CS 2001. Quality changes and shelf life of imported vacuum packaged beef chuck during storage at 0°C. Meat Science 59, 7177.
Lyan, B, Azais-Braesco, V, Cardinault, N, Tyssandier, V, Borel, P, Alexandre-Gouabau, MC and Grolier, P 2001. Simple method for clinical determination of 13 carotenoids in human plasma using an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Journal of Chromatography 751, 297303.
Maddock, TD, Bauer, M L, Koch, KB, Anderson, VL, Maddock, RJ, Barceló Coblijn, G, Murphy, EJ and Lardy, EN 2006. Effect of processing flax in beef feedlot diets on performance carcass characteristics, and trained sensory panel ratings. Journal Animal Science 84, 15441551.
McDougall, DB 1982. Changes in the colour and opacity of meat. Food Chemistry 9, 7288.
Miller, MF, Kerth, CR, Wise, JW, Landsell, JL, Stowell, JE and Ramsey, CB 1997. Slaughter plant location USDA quality grade, external fat thickness, and aging time effects on sensory characteristics of beef loin strip steak. Journal Animal Science 49, 662667.
Monsón, F, Sañudo, C and Sierra, I 2005. Influence of breed and ageing time on the sensory meat quality and consumer acceptability in intensively reared beef. Meat Science 71, 471479.
Pariza, MW 2004. Perspective on the safety and effectiveness of conjugated linoleic acid. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 1132S1136S.
Partida, JA, Olleta, JL, Sañudo, C, Albertí, P and Campo, MM 2007. Fatty acid composition and sensory traits of beef fed palm oil supplements. Meat Science 76, 444454.
Poulson, CS, Dhiman, TR, Ure, AL, Cornforth, D and Olson, KC 2004. Conjugated linoleic acid content of beef from cattle fed diets containing high grain, CLA or raised on forages. Livestock Production Science 91, 117128.
Priolo, A, Micol, D and Agabriel, J 2001. Effects of grass feeding systems on ruminant meat colour and flavor: a review. Animal Research 50, 185200.
Ripoll, G, Casasús, I, Albertí, P and Blanco, M 2011. Characteristics and meat quality evolution of veal produced in Mediterranean mountain areas XIV Symposium of Animal Production, 17 to 18 May 2011, Zaragoza, Spain, Issue II, pp. 742–744.
Ritzenthaler, KL, McGuire, MK, Falen, R, Schultz, TD, Dasgupta, N and McGuire, MA 2001. Estimation of CLA intake by written dietary assessment methodologies underestimates actual intake evaluated by food duplicate methodology. Journal of Nutrition 131, 15481554.
Sañudo, C, Macie, E S, Olleta, JL, Villarroel, M, Panea, B and Albertí, P 2004. The effects of slaughter weight breed type and ageing time on beef meat quality using two different texture devices. Meat Science 66, 925932.
Schiavon, SM, De Marchi, M, Tagliapietra, F, Bailoni, L, Cecchinato, A and Bittante, G 2011. Effects of high and low-protein rations combined or not with rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on meat CLA content and quality traits of double-muscled Piemontese bulls. Meat Science 89, 133142.
Scollan, ND, Choi, N, Kurt, E, Fisher, AV, Enser, M and Wood, JD 2001. Manipulating the fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue in beef cattle. British Journal of Nutrition 85, 115124.
Scollan, ND, Dannenberger, D, Nuernberg, K, Richardson, I, MacKintosh, S, Hocquette, JF and Moloney, AP 2014. Enhancing the nutritional and health value of beef lipids and their relationship with meat quality. Meat Science 97, 384394.
Thompson, JM 2004. The effects of marbling on flavor and juiciness scores of cooked beef, after adjusting to a constant tenderness. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 44, 645652.
Voedingsaanbevelingen voor België 2000. De Hoge Gezondheidraad, Ministerie van Sociale zaken, Volksgezondheid en Leefmilieu, Brussel, Belgie, 81.
Warren, HE, Scollan, ND, Nute, GR, Hughes, SI, Wood, JD and Richardson, RI 2008. Effects of breed and a concentrate or grass silage diet on beef quality in cattle of 3 ages II: Meat stability and flavour. Meat Science 78, 270278.
Wood, JD, Enser, M, Fisher, A, Nute, GR, Richardson, RI and Sheard, PR 1999. Manipulating meat quality and composition. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 363370.
Wood, JD, Richardson, RI, Nute, GR, Fisher, AV, Campo, MM, Kasapidou, E, Sheard, PR and Enser, M 2003. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review. Meat Science 66, 2132.
World Health Organization 2003. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report ot the joint WHO/FAO expert consultation, Vol. 916, Geneva.


Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality

  • M. Barahona (a1), J. L. Olleta (a1), C. Sañudo (a1), P. Albertí (a2), B. Panea (a2), M. Pérez-Juan (a3), C. E. Realini (a3) and M. M. Campo (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed