Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effects of finishing diet sorting and digestibility on performance and feed efficiency in beef steers

  • K. C. Dykier (a1), J. W. Oltjen (a1), P. H. Robinson (a1) and R. D. Sainz (a1)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that differences in residual feed intake (RFI) of beef steers are related to diet sorting, diet nutrient composition, energy intake and apparent digestibility. To phenotype steers for RFI, 69 weaned Angus × Hereford steers were fed individually for 56 days. A finishing diet was fed twice daily on an ad libitum basis to maintain approximately 0.5 to 1.0 kg refusals. Diet offered and refused was measured daily, and DM intakes (DMI) were calculated by difference. Body weights were recorded at 14-day intervals following an 18-h solid feed withdrawal. The residual feed intake was determined as the residual of the regression of DMI versus mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and average daily gain (ADG). Particle size distributions of diet and refusals were determined using the Penn State Particle Separator to quantify diet sorting. Sampling of diet, refusals and feces were repeated in four sampling periods which occurred during weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of the study. Particle size distributions of refusals and diet were analyzed in weeks 2, 4 and 6, and sampling for chemical analysis of refusals and feces occurred in all four periods. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber (288 h in situ) was used as an internal marker of apparent digestibility. We conclude that preference for the intakes of particles > 19 mm and 4 to 8 mm were negatively correlated to RFI and ADG, respectively. Although steers did sort to consume a different diet composition than offered, diet sorting did not impact intake energy, digestible energy or DM digestibility.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2012. Official methods of analysis, 19th edition. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Bingham, GM, Friend, TH, Lancaster, PA and Carstens, GE 2009. Relationship between feeding behavior and residual feed intake in growing Brangus heifers. Journal of Animal Science 87, 26852689.
Cooper, SD, Kyriazakis, I and Oldham, JD 1996. The effects of physical form of feed, carbohydrate source, and inclusion of sodium bicarbonate on the diet selections of sheep. Journal of Animal Science 74, 12401251.
Cundiff, LV, Van Vleck, DL and Hohenboken, WD 2010. Guidelines for uniform beef improvement programs, 9th edition. Beef Improvement Federation. Retrieved on 5 August 2015 from https://beefimprovement.org/content/uploads/2015/08/REVISED-MasterEd-BIF-GuidelinesFinal-08-2015.pdf.
Custudio, SAS, Claudio, FL, Alves, EM, Junior, GC, Paim, TDP and de Carvalho, ER 2016. Feed sorting of beef cattle in a feedlot fed different forages and housed in individual or collective pens. (Portuguese) Journal of Animal Behavior and Biometeorology 4, 5564.
DeVries, TJ, Dohme, F and Beauchemin, KA 2008. Repeated ruminal acidosis challenges in lactating dairy cows at high and low risk for developing acidosis: feed sorting. Journal of Dairy Science 91, 39583967.
DeVries, TJ, Schwaigner, T, Beauchemin, KA and Penner, GB 2014. The duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects feed sorting behavior both before and after acute ruminal acidosis. Journal Animal Science 92, 17281737.
Fitzsimons, C, Kenny, DA, Fahey, AG and McGee, M 2014. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage. Journal of Animal Science 92, 21702181.
Greter, AM and DeVries, TJ 2010. Effect of feeding amount on the feeding and sorting behavior of lactating dairy cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 91, 4754.
Hafla, AN, Carstens, GE, Forbes, TDA, Tedeschi, LO, Bailey, JC, Walter, JT and Johnson, JR 2013. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females. Journal of Animal Science 91, 53535365.
Hales, KE, Foote, AP, Brown-Brandl, TM and Freetly, HC 2017. The effects of feeding increasing concentrations of corn oil on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 95, 939948.
Herd, RM and Arthur, PF 2009. Physiological basis for residual feed intake. Journal of Animal Science 87, E64E71.
Kayser, W and Hill, RA 2013. Relationship between feed intake, feeding behaviors, performance, and ultrasound carcass measurements in growing purebred Angus and Hereford bulls. Journal of Animal Science 91, 54925499.
Koch, RM, Swiger, LA, Chambers, D and Gregory, KE 1963. Efficiency of feed used in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 22, 486494.
Kononoff, PJ, Heinrichs, AJ and Buckmaster, DR 2003. Modification of the Penn State forage and total mixed ration particle separator and the effects of moisture content on its measurements. Journal of Dairy Science 86, 18581863.
Lancaster, PA, Carstens, GE, Ribeiro, FRB, Tedeschi, LO and , Crews Jr. , DH 2009. Characterization of feed efficiency traits and relationships with feed behavior and ultrasound carcass traits in growing bulls. Journal of Animal Science 87, 15281539.
Leonardi, C and Armentatno, LE 2007. Feed selection by dairy cows fed individually in a tie-stall or as a group in free-stall barn. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 23862389.
Methu, JN, Owen, E, Abate, AL and Tanner, JC 2001. Botanical and nutritional composition of maize stover, intakes and feed selection by dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science 71, 8796.
Miller-Cushon, EK and DeVries, TJ 2017. Feed sorting in dairy cattle: causes, consequences, and management. Journal of Dairy Science 100, 41724183.
National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) 2016. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, 8th revised edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Nkrumah, JD, Crew, Jr. , DH, Basarab, JA, Price, MA, Okine, EK, Wang, Z, Li, C and Moore, SS 2007. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 85, 23832390.
Phy, TS and Provenza, FD 1998. Sheep fed grain prefer food and solutions that attenuate acidosis. Journal of Animal Science 76, 954960.
Yang, WZ and Beauchemin, KA 2006. Effects of physically effective fiber on chewing activity and ruminal pH of dairy cows fed diets based on barley silage. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 217228.

Keywords

Effects of finishing diet sorting and digestibility on performance and feed efficiency in beef steers

  • K. C. Dykier (a1), J. W. Oltjen (a1), P. H. Robinson (a1) and R. D. Sainz (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed