Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effect of ractopamine and conjugated linoleic acid on performance of late finishing pigs

  • J. C. Panisson (a1), A. Maiorka (a1), S.G. Oliveira (a1), A. Saraiva (a2), M. S. Duarte (a2), K. F. Silva (a1), E. V. Santos (a3), R. L. S. Tolentino (a3), I. M. G. Lopes (a3), L. L. M. Guedes (a3) and B. A. N. Silva (a3)...

Abstract

The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Amaral, NO, Fialho, ET, Cantarelli, VS, Zangeronimo, MG, Rodrigues, PB and Girão, LVC 2009. Ractopamine hydrochloride in formulated ratios for barrows or gilts from 94 to 130 kg. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 38, 14941501.
Armstrong, TA, Ivers, DJ, Wagner, JR, Anderson, DB, Weldon, WC and Berg, EP 2004. The effect of dietary ractopamine concentration and duration of feeding on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 82, 32453253.
Barnes, KM, Winslow, NR, Shelton, AG, Hlusko, KC and Azain, MJ 2012. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on marbling and intramuscular adipocytes in pork. Journal of Animal Science 90, 11421149.
Bates, RO and Christians, LL 2004. National swine improvement federation guidelines. Retrieved on 20 October 2016, from https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/NSIF/NSIF-FS16.html
Cook, ME, Jerome, DL, Crenshaw, TD, Buege, DR, Pariza, MW, Albright, SP, Scimeca, JA, Lofgren, PA and Hentges, EJ 1998. Feeding conjugated linoleic acid improves feed efficiency and reduces carcass fat in pigs. FASEB Journal 11, 3347.
Crome, PK, Mckeith, FK, Carr, TR, Jones, DJ, Mowrey, DH and Cannon, JE 1996. Effect of ractopamine on growth performance, carcass composition, and cutting yields of pigs slaughtered at 107 and 125 kilograms. Journal of Animal Science 74, 709716.
Donovan, DC, Schingoethe, DJ, Baer, RJ, Ryali, J, Hippen, AR and Franklin, ST 2000. Influence of dietary fish oil on conjugated linoleic acid and other fatty acids in milk fat from lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 83, 26202628.
Dugan, MER, Aalhus, JL, Schaefer, AL and Kramer, JKG 1997. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on fat to lean repartitioning and feed conversion in pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 77, 723725.
Fernández-Fígarez, FI, Conde-Aguilera, JA, Lachica, M and Aquilera, JF 2007. Synergistic effects of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on growth and carcass composition of growing Iberian pigs. Journal of Animal Science 86, 102–11.
Ferreira, MSS, Sousa, RV, Silva, VO, Zangerônimo, MG and Amaral, NO 2011. Cloridrato de ractopamina em dietas para suínos em terminação. Acta Scientiarum Animal Science 33, 2532.
Kamphuis, MMJW, Legeune, MPGM, Saris, WHM and Westerterpplantenga, MS 2003. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects. Internationl Journal of Obesity 27, 840847.
Khosla, P and Fungwe, TV 2001. Conjugated linoleic acid: effects on plasma lipids and cardiovascular function. Current Opinion Lipidology 12, 3134.
Köppen, W 1948. Climatología: Con un estudio de los climas de la Tierra, 1st edición. Fondo de Cultura Econômica, Buenos Aires, DF, MEX.
Marcolla, CS, Holanda, DM, Ferreira, SV, Rocha, GC, Serão, NVL, Duarte, MS, Abreu, A and Saraiva, MLT 2017. Chromium, CLA, and ractopamine for finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 95, 44724480. doi: 10.2527/jas2017.1753.
Marinho, PC, Fontes, DO, Silva, FCO, Silva, MA, Pereira, FA and Arouca, CLC 2007. Efeito da ractopamina e de métodos de formulação de dietas sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados em terminação. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 36, 10611068.
National Research Council (NRC ) 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine, 11th revised edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Pariza, MW, Park, Y and Cook, ME 2000. Mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid: evidence and speculation. Proceedings of Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 225, 913.
Pariza, MW, Park, Y and Cook, ME 2001. The biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Progress in Lipid Research 40, 283298.
Parra, P, Palou, A and Serra, F 2010. Moderate doses of conjugated linoleic acid reduce fat gain, maintain insulin sensitivity without impairing inflammatory adipose tissue status in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutrition and Metabolism 7, 5. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-7-5. Published online by PubMed 20 January 2010.
Pelleymounter, MA, Cullen, MJ, Baker, MB, Hecht, R, Winters, D, Boone, T and Collins, F 1995. Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Science 269, 540543.
Pereira, FA, Fontes, DO, Silva, FCO, Ferreira, WM, Lanna, AMQ, Corrêa, GSS, Silva, MA, Marinho, PC, Arouca, CLC and Salum, GM 2008. Efeitos da ractopamina e de dois níveis de lisina digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça de leitoas em terminação. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 60, 943952.
Pompeu, D, Weigand, BR, Evans, HL, Rickard, JW, Gerlemann, GD, Hinson, RB, Carr, SN, Ritter, MJ, Boyd, RD and Allee, GL 2013. Effect of corn distiller’s grains with solubles, conjugated linoleic acid, and ractopamine (paylean) on growth performance and fat characteristics of late finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 91, 793803.
Rickard, JW, Wiegand, BR, Pompeu, D, Hinson, RB, Gerlemann, GD, Disselhorst, R, Briscoe, ME, Evans, HL and Allee, GL 2011. The effect of corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles, ractopamine, and conjugated linoleic acid on the carcass performance, meat quality, and shelf-life characteristics of fresh pork following three different storage methods. Meat Science 90, 643652.
Rikard-bell, CV, Pluske, JR, Van Barneveld, RJ, Mullan, BP, Edwards, AC, Gannon, NJ, Henman, DJ and Dunshea, FR 2013. Dietary ractopamine promotes growth, feed efficiency and carcass responses over a wide range of available lysine levels in finisher boars and gilts. Animal Production Science 53, 817.
Rostagno, HS, Albino, LFT, Donzele, JL, Gomes, PC, Oliveira, RFM, Lopes, DC, Ferreira, AS and Barreto, SLT 2011. Brazilian tables for poutlry and swine: nutritional requirements and feed compositions, 3rd edition. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.
Sanches, JF, Kiefer, C, Moura, MS, Silva, CM, Luz, MF and Carrijo, AS 2010. Níveis de ractopamina para suínos machos castrados em terminação e mantidos sob conforto térmico. Ciência Rural 40, 403408.
Santos-Zago, LF, Botelho, AP and Oliveira, AC 2008. Os efeitos do ácido linoléico conjugado no metabolismo animal: avanço das pesquisas e perspectivas para o futuro. Revista de Nutrição 21, 195221.
Schinckel, AP, Li, N, Richert, BT, Preckel, PV and Einstein, ME 2003. Development of a model to describe growth and dietary lysine requirements of pigs fed ractopamine. Journal of Animal Science 81, 11061119.
See, MT, Armstrong, TA and Weldon, WC 2004. Effect of a ractopamine feeding program on growth performance and carcass composition in finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 82, 24742480.
Silva, MLF, Wolp, RC, Amaral, NO, Carvalho Júnior, FM, Pereira, LM, Rodrigues, VV and Fialho, ET 2008. Efeito da ractopamina em rações com diferentes níveis de lisina sobre as características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados e fêmeas. In PorkExpo & IV Fórum Internacional de Suinocultura, 30–2nd September 2008, Curitiba, Brazil, pp. 111–113.
Surek, D, Maiorka, A, Oliveira, SG, Dahlke, F and Krabbe, EL 2011. Ácido linoléico conjugado na nutrição de suínos sobre desempenho zootécnico, características de carcaça e rendimentos de cortes. Ciência Rural 41, 21902195.
Thiel-Cooper, RL, Parrish, FC Jr, Sparks, JC, Wiegand, BR and Schinckel, AP 2001. Conjugated linoleic acid changes swine performance and carcass composition. Journal of Animal Science 79, 18211828.
Trapp, SA, Rice, JP, Kelly, DT, Bundy, A, Schinkel, AP and Richert, BT 2002. Evaluation of four ractopamine use programs on pig growth and carcass characteristics. Purdue University, Swine Research Report, 62–71. Retrieved on 20 May 2017, from http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/swine/swineday/sday02/9.pdf
Watkins, LE, Jones, DJ, Mowrey, DH, Anderson, DB and Veenhuizen, EL 1990. The effect of various levels of ractopamine hydrochloride on the performance of finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science 68, 35883595.
Weber, TE, Richert, BT, Belury, MA, Gu, Y, Enright, K and Schinckel, AP 2006. Evaluation of the effects of dietary fat, conjugated linoleic acid, and ractopamine on growth performance, pork quality, and fatty acid profiles in genetically lean gilts. Journal of Animal Science 84, 720732.
Webster, MJ, Goodband, RD, Tokach, MD, Nelssen, JL, Dritz, SS, Unruh, JA, Brown, KR, Real, DE, Derouchey, JM, Woodworth, JC, Groesbeck, CN and Marsteller, TA 2007. Interactive effects between ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary lysine on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, pork quality, and tissue accretion. Professional Animal Scientist 23, 597611.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed