Ahn, IS 2006. Isomer-specific effect of conjugated linoleic acid on inflammatory adipokines associated with fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Medicinal Food 9, 307–312.
Albuquerque, A, Redondeiro, M, Laranjo, M, Felix, MR, Neves, J, Félix, MR, Freitas, A, Tirapicos, J and Martins, J 2017. Long term betaine supplementation regulates genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism of two muscles from an obese pig breed. Meat Science 124, 25–33.
Boden, G, Chen, X, Kolaczynski, JW and Polansky, M 1997. Effects of prolonged hyperinsulinemia on serum leptin in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100, 1107–1113.
Chin, S, Liu, W, Storkson, J, Ha, Y and Pariza, M 1992. Dietary sources of conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarcinogens. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 5, 185–197.
Craig, SAS 2004. Betaine in human nutrition. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, 539–549.
Cusin, I, Sainsbury, A, Doyle, P, Rohner Jeanrenaud, F and Jeanrenaud, B 1995. The ob gene and insulin. A relationship leading to clues to the understanding of obesity. Diabetes 44, 1467–1470.
Dietz, J and Schwartz, J 1991. Growth hormone alters lipolysis and hormone-sensitive lipase activity in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental 40, 800–806.
Dugan, MER, Aalhus, JL, Schaefer, AL and Kramer, JKG 1997. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on fat to lean repartitioning and feed conversion in pigs. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 77, 723–725.
Evans, M, Lin, X, Odle, J and McIntosh, M 2002. Trans-10, Cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Journal of Nutrition 132, 450–455.
Fernandez-Figares, I, Conde-Aguilera, JA, Nieto, R, Lachica, M and Aguilera, JF 2008. Synergistic effects of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on the growth and carcass composition of growing Iberian pigs. Journal of Animal Science 86, 102–111.
Fernandez-Figares, I, Lachica, M, Martin, A, Nieto, R, Gonzalez-Valero, L, Rodriguez-Lopez, JM and Aguilera, JF 2012. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs. Animal 6, 1058–1067.
Fernandez-Figares, I, Wray-Cahen, D, Steele, NC, Campbell, RG, Hall, DD, Virtanen, E and Caperna, TJ 2002. Effect of dietary betaine on nutrient utilization and partitioning in the young growing feed-restricted pig. Journal of Animal Science 80, 421–428.
Friedman, J and Halaas, J 1998. Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 395, 763–770.
Fruhbeck, G, Martinez, JA, Martínez, JA, Frühbeck, G, Aguado, M and Martınez, JA 1997. In vitro lipolytic effect of leptin on mouse adipocytes: evidence for a possible autocrine/paracrine role of leptin. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 240, 590–594.
Huang, QC, Xu, ZR, Han, XY and Li, WF 2006. Changes in hormones, growth factor and lipid metabolism in finishing pigs fed betaine. Livestock Science 105, 78–85.
Jang, A, Kim, D, Sung, KS, Jung, S, Kim, H and Jo, C 2014. The effect of dietary Î±-lipoic acid, betaine, l-carnitine, and swimming on the obesity of mice induced by a high-fat diet. Food and Function 5, 1966–1974.
José, AAFBV, Gama, MAS and Lanna, DDP 2008. Effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on gene expression and lipid metabolism of adipose tissue of growing pigs. Genetics and Molecular Research 7, 284–294.
Lee, MJ, Wang, YX, Ricci, MR, Sullivan, S, Russell, CD and Fried, SK 2007. Acute and chronic regulation of leptin synthesis, storage, and secretion by insulin and dexamethasone in human adipose tissue. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 292, E858–E864.
Lin, J, Barb, CR, Matteri, RL, Kraeling, RR, Chen, X, Meinersmann, RJ and Rampacek, GB 2000. Long form leptin receptor mRNA expression in the brain, pituitary, and other tissues in the pig. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 19, 53–61.
Mersmann, HJ 1984. Specificity of β-adrenergic control of lipolysis in swine adipose tissue. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. C, Comparative Pharmacology 77, 39–42.
Mersmann, HJ 1989. The effect of insulin on porcine adipose tissue lipogenesis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B. Comparative Biochemistry 94, 709–713.
Mueller, W, Gregoire, F, Stanhope, K, Mobbs, C, Mizuno, T, Warden, C, Stern, J and Havel, P 1998. Evidence that glucose metabolism regulates leptin secretion from cultured rat adipocytes. Endocrinology 139, 551–558.
Neilands, JB. (1955). Lactic dehydrogenase of heart muscle. Methods in Enzymology 1, 449–454.
Park, Y, Storkson, J, Albright, K, Liu, W and Pariza, M 1999. Evidence that trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid induces body composition changes in mice. Lipids 34, 235–241.
Ramsay, TG 2001. Porcine leptin alters insulin inhibition of lipolysis in porcine adipocytes in vitro. Journal of Animal Science 79, 653–657.
Ramsay, TG 2004. Porcine leptin alters isolated adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 26, 11–21.
Ramsay, TG and Richards, MP 2004. Hormonal regulation of leptin and leptin receptor expression in porcine subcutaneous adipose tissue. Journal of Animal Science 82, 3486–3492.
Ramsay, TG and White, ME 2000. Insulin regulation of leptin expression in streptozotocin diabetic pigs. Journal of Animal Science 78, 1497–1503.
Ricci, M, Lee, MJ, Russell, C, Wang, Y, Sullivan, S, Schneider, S, Brolin, R and Fried, S 2005. Isoproterenol decreases leptin release from rat and human adipose tissue through posttranscriptional mechanisms. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism 288, E798–E804.
Rojas-Cano, M, Lachica, M, Lara, L, Haro, A and Fernandez-Figares, I 2017. Portal-drained viscera heat production in Iberian pigs fed betaine- and conjugated linoleic acid-supplemented diets. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 97, 679–685.
Rojas-Cano, ML, Lara, L, Lachica, M, Aguilera, JF and Fernandez-Figares, I 2011. Influence of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on development of carcass cuts of Iberian pigs growing from 20 to 50 kg body weight. Meat Science 88, 525–530.
Svedberg, J, Bjorntorp, P, Smith, U and Lonnroth, P 1990. Free fatty-acid inhibition of insulin binding, degradation, and action in isolated rat hepatocytes. Diabetes 39, 570–574.
Wang, Z, Pini, M, Yao, T, Zhou, Z, Sun, C, Fantuzzi, G and Song, Z 2011. Homocysteine suppresses lipolysis in adipocytes by activating the AMPK pathway. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism 301, E703–E712.
Yeganeh, A, Taylor, CG, Tworek, L, Poole, J and Zahradka, P 2016. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) interferes with lipid droplet accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 76, 39–50.
Zhou, X, Li, D, Yin, J, Ni, J, Dong, B, Zhang, J and Du, M 2007. CLA differently regulates adipogenesis in stromal vascular cells from porcine subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle. Journal of Lipid Research 48, 1701–1709.