Alburquerque, JA, Gonzalez, J, García, D and Cegarra, J 2004. Agrochemical characterisation of “alperujo”, a solid by-product of the two-phase centrifugation method for olive oil extraction. Bioresources Technology 91, 195-200.
1984. Official methods of analysis, 14th edition. AOAC, Washington, DC.
Ben Salem, H, Nefazaoui, A, Ben Salem, L and Tisserand, JL 1999. Intake, digestibility, urinary excretion of purine derivatives and growth by sheep given fresh, air-dried or polyethylene glycol-treated foliage of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Animal Feed Science and Technology 78, 297-311.
Ben Salem, H, Nefzaoui, A, Ben Salem, L and Tisserand, JL 2000. Deactivation of condensed tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage by polyethylene glycol in feed blocks. Effect on feed intake, diet digestibility, nitrogen balance, microbial synthesis and growth by sheep. Livestock Production Science 64, 51-60.
Bohra, HC 1980. Nutrient utilization of Prosopis cineria (Khejri) leaves by desert sheep and goats. Annales Arid Zone. 19, 73.
Brooker, JD, O'Donovan, LA, Skene, I and Sellick, G 2000. Mechanisms of tannin resistance and detoxification in the rumen. In Tannins in livestock and human nutrition (ed. Brooker, JD), Proceedings no. 92, pp. 117-122.ACIAR, Australia.
Bryant, JP, Provenza, FD, Pastor, J, Reichardt, PB, Clausen, TP and Du Toit, JT 1991. Interactions between woody plants and browsing mammals mediated by secondary metabolites. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 22, 431-446.
Doyle, PT, Egan, JK and Thalen, AJ 1984. Intake, digestion and nitrogen and sulfur retention in Angora goats and Merino sheep fed herbage diets. Australian Journal of Experimental Animal Science 24, 165-169.
Frutos, P, Hervás, G, Giraldez, FJ, Fernández, M and Mantecón, AR 2000. Digestive utilization of quebracho-treated soya bean meal in sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 134, 101-108.
Garg, AK, Agrawal, DK and Nath, K 1984. Effect of sal (Shorea robusta) seed meal tannins on serum enzymes, nutrient utilization and growth in growing calves. Agricultural Wastes 11, 307-317.
Getachew, G, Makkar, HPS and Becker, K 2001. Method of polyethylene glycol application to tanning-containing browses to improve microbial fermentation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis from tannin-containing browses. Animal Feed Science and Technology 92, 51-57.
Hervás, G, Pérez, V, Giradlez, FJ, Mantecón, AR, Almar, MM and Frutos, P 2003. Intoxication of sheep with quebracho tannin extract. Journal of Comparative Pathology 129, 44-54.
Isac, MD, García, MA, Aguilera, JF and Molina Alcaide, E 1994. A comparative study of nutrient digestibility, kinetics of digestion and passage and rumen fermentation pattern in goats and sheep offered medium quality forages at the maintenance level of feeding. Archives of Animal Nutrition 46, 37-50.
Kumar, R and Singh, M 1984. Tannins: their adverse role in ruminant nutrition. Journal of Food Agriculture and Food Chemistry 32, 447-453.
Landau, S, Perevolotsky, A, Bonfil, D, Barkai, D and Silanikove, N 2000. Utilization of low quality resources by small ruminants in Mediterranean agro-pastoral system: the case of browse and aftermath cereal stubble. Livestock Production Science 64, 39-50.
Martín García, AI, Moumen, A, Yáñez Ruiz, DR and Molina Alcaide, E 2003. Chemical composition and nutrients availability for goats and sheep of two-stage olive cake and olive leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 107, 61-74.
McLeod, MN 1974. Plant tannins: their role in forage quality. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 44, 803-812.
Min, BR, Barry, TN, Attwood, GT and McNabb, WC 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 106, 3-19.
Molina Alcaide, E, Martín García, AI and Aguilera, JF 2000. A comparative study of nutrient digestibility, kinetics of degradation and passage and rumen fermentation pattern in goats and sheep offered good-quality diets. Livestock Production Science 64, 215-223.
Molina Alcaide, E, Yáñez Ruiz, D, Moumen, A and Martín García, I 2003. Chemical composition and nitrogen availability of some olive by-products. Small Ruminant Research 49, 329-336.
Mueller-Harvey, I and McAllan, AB 1992. Tannin: Their biochemistry and nutritional properties. In Advances in plant cell biochemistry and biotechnology, Vol. 1 (ed. Morrison, IM), pp. 151-217.JAI Press Ltd. London.
Narjisse, H, Elhonsali, MA and Olsen, JD 1995. Effects of oak (Quercus ilex) tannins on digestion and nitrogen balance in sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 18, 201-206.
Nefzaoui, A 1985. Valorisation des residus lignocellulosiques dans l'alimentation des ruminants par les traitements aux alkalis. Application aux grignons d'olive. , Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Nueve.
Núñez-Hernandez, G, Wallace, JD, Holechek, JL, Galyean, ML and Cardenas, M 1991. Condensed tannins and nutrient utilization by lambs and goats fed low quality diets. Journal of Animal Science 69, 1167-1177.
Pérez Maldonado, RA and Norton, BW 1996. Digestion of 14C-labelled condensed tannins from Desmodium intortum in sheep and goats. British Journal of Nutrition 76, 501-513.
Priolo, A, Waghorn, GC, Lanza, M, Biondi, L and Pennisi, P 2000. Polyethylene glycol as a means for reducing the impact of condensed tannins in carob pulp: Effects on lamb growth, performance and meat quality. Journal of Animal Science 78, 810-816.
Ramos Cormenzana, A, Juárez Jiménez, B and García Pareja, MP 1996. Antimicrobial activity of olive mill waste-waters (Alpechín) and biotransformed olive oil mill waste water. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 38, 283-290.
Reed, JD 1995. Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. Journal of Animal Science 73, 1516-1528.
Reed, JD 1986. Relationships among phenolics, insoluble proanthocyanidins and fiber in East African browse species. Journal of Range Management 39, 5-7.
Rotz, CA 2004. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production. Journal of Animal Science 82, E119-E137.
Silanikove, N 2000. The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments. Small Ruminant Research 35, 181-193.
Silanikove, N, Gilboa, N, Nir, I, Perevolotsky, A and Nitsan, Z 1996. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Quercus calliprinos, Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua) by goats. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 44, 199-205.
Silanikove, N, Nitsan, Z and Perevolotsky, A 1994. Effect of a daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin-containing leaves (Ceratonia siliqua) by sheep. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 42, 2844-2847.
Silanikove, N and Tiomkin, D 1992. Toxicity induced by poultry litter consumption: effect on parameters reflecting liver function in beef cows. Animal Production 54, 203-209.
1985. SAS user's guide: statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Van Soest, PJ and Masson, VC 1991. The influence of the Maillard reaction upon the nutritive value of fibrous feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 32, 45-53.
Yáñez Ruiz, DR, Moumen, A, Martín García, AI and Molina Alcaide, E 2004. Ruminal fermentation and degradation patterns, protozoa population and urinary purine derivative excretion in goats and wethers fed diets based on two-stage olive cake: effect of PEG supply. Journal of Animal Science 82, 2023-2032.
Zhu, J and Flippish, LJ 1995. Acute intra-abomasal toxicity of tannic acid in sheep. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 37, 50-54.