Skip to main content Accessibility help

Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets

  • R. Benítez (a1), Y. Núñez (a1), A. Fernández (a1), B. Isabel (a2), C. Rodríguez (a1), A. Daza (a3), C. López-Bote (a2), L. Silió (a1) and C. Óvilo (a1)...


Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to a pattern dissimilar from the usual in cosmopolitan pig breeds. Feeding/fasting status only influenced PPARG gene transcription. The lack of effects of feeding/fasting status on lipogenic gene expression and the higher ME1 response to diet in fasting samples than in postprandial sampling, suggest the persistence of de novo lipogenesis during fasting. Overall results improve the understanding of the influence of different factors on lipid metabolism regulation in Iberian pigs.


Corresponding author



Hide All
Anderson, DB and Kauffman, RG 1973. Cellular and enzymatic changes in porcine adipose tissue during growth. Journal of Lipid Research 14, 160168.
Barea, R, Isabel, B, Nieto, R, López-Bote, C and Aguilera, JF 2013. Evolution of the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous back-fat adipose tissue in growing Iberian and Landrace x Large White pigs. Animal 7, 688698.
Benjamini, Y and Hochberg, Y 1995. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and poweful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 57, 289300.
Ding, ST, Lapillonne, A, Heird, WC and Mersmann, HJ 2003. Dietary fat has minimal effects on fatty acid metabolism transcript concentrations in pigs. Journal of Animal Science 81, 423431.
Doran, O, Moule, SK, Teye, GA, Whittington, FM, Hallett, KG and Wood, JD 2006. A reduced protein diet induces stearoyl-CoA desaturase protein expression in pig muscle but not in subcutaneous adipose tissue: relationship with intramuscular lipid formation. British Journal of Nutrition 95, 609617.
Duran-Montgé, P, Theil, PK, Lauridsen, C and Esteve-García, E 2009. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues. Animal 3, 535542.
Fernández-Figares, I, Lachica, M, Nieto, R, Rivera-Ferre, MG and Aguilera, JF 2007. Serum profile of metabolites and hormones in obese (Iberian) and lean (Landrace) growing gilts fed balanced or lysine deficient diets. Livestock Science 110, 7381.
Georgiadi, A and Kersten, S 2012. Mechanisms of gene regulation by fatty acids. Advances in Nutrition 3, 127134.
Green, CD, Ozguden-Akkoc, CG, Wang, Y, Jump, DB and Olson, LK 2010. Role of fatty acid elongases in determination of de novo synthesized monounsaturated fatty acid species. Journal of Lipid Research 51, 18711877.
Hood, RL and Allen, CE 1973. Lipogenic enzyme activity in adipose tissue during the growth of swine with different propensities to fatten. The Journal of Nutrition 103, 353362.
Houseknecht, KL, Bidwell, CA, Portocarrero, CP and Spurlock, ME 1998. Expression and cDNA cloning of porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Gene 28, 8996.
Jakobsson, A, Westerberg, R and Jacobsson, A 2006. Fatty acid elongases in mammals: their regulation and roles in metabolism. Progress in Lipid Research 453, 237249.
Kersten, S 2001. Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis. EMBO Reports 2, 282286.
Lefebvre, P, Benomar, Y and Staels, B 2010. Retinoid×receptors: common heterodimerization partners with distinct functions. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 21, 676683.
Lengqvist, J, Mata De Urquiza, A, Bergman, AC, Willson, TM, Sjovall, J, Perlmann, T and Griffiths, WJ 2004. Polyunsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid bind to the retinoid×receptor alpha ligand-binding domain. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 3, 692703.
López-Bote, C 1998. Sustained utilization of the Iberian pig breed. Meat Science 49, S17S27.
Morgan, K, Uyuni, A, Nandgiri, G, Mao, L, Castaneda, L, Kathirvel, E, French, SW and Morgan, TR 2008. Altered expression of transcription factors and genes regulating lipogenesis in liver and adipose tissue of mice with high fat diet-induced obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 20, 843854.
Mourot, J, Kouba, M and Bonneau, M 1996. Comparative study of in vitro lipogenesis in various adipose tissues in the growing meishan Pig: comparison with the Large White pig (Sus domesticus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 3, 383388.
O’Gorman, CW, Stanko, RL, Keisler, DH and Garcia, MR 2010. Effects of acute fasting and age on leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma production relative to fat depot in immature and mature pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 94, 266276.
O’Hea, EK and Leveille, GA 1969. Influence of fasting and refeeding on lipogenesis and enzymatic activity of pig adipose tissue. The Journal of Nutrition 99, 338344.
Óvilo, C, Benítez, R, Fernández, A, Isabel, B, Núñez, Y, Fernández, AI, Rodríguez, C, Daza, A, Silió, L and López-Bote, C 2014. Dietary energy source largely affects tissue fatty acid composition but has minor influence on gene transcription in Iberian pigs. Journal of Animal Science 92, 939954.
Palou, M, Sánchez, J, Priego, T, Rodríguez, AM, Picó, C and Palou, A 2010. Regional differences in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue in response to short- and medium-term fasting and refeeding. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 21, 2333.
Paton, CM and Ntambi, JM 2009. Biochemical and physiological function of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 297, 2837.
Pérez-Palacios, T, Ruiz, J, Tejeda, JF and Antequera, T 2009. Subcutaneous and intramuscular lipid traits as tools for classifying Iberian pigs as a function of their feeding background. Meat Science 81, 632640.
Pugliese, C and Sirtori, F 2012. Quality of meat and meat products produced from southern European pig breeds. Meat Science 90, 511518.
Raes, K, De Smet, S and Demeyer, D 2004. Effect of dietary fatty acids on incorporation of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork meat: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 113, 199221.
Sampath, H and Ntambi, JM 2006. Regulation of gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Heart Metabolism 32, 3235.
Steibel, JP, Poletto, R, Coussens, PM and Rosa, GJM 2009. A powerful and flexible linear mixed model framework for the analysis of relative quantification RT-PCR data. Genomics 94, 146152.
Viscarra, JA and Ortiz, RM 2013. Cellular mechanisms regulating fuel metabolism in mammals: role of adipose tissue and lipids during prolonged food deprivation. Metabolism 62, 889897.
Wakil, SJ, Stoops, JK and Joshi, VC 1983. Fatty acid synthesis and its regulation. Annual Review of Biochemistry 52, 537579.
Wang, MY, Lee, Y and Unger, RH 1999. Novel form of lipolysis induced by leptin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274, 17541--17544.
Wise, EM Jr and Ball, EG 1964. Malic enzyme and lipogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unites States of America 52, 12551263.
Wood, JD 1984. Fat deposition and the quality of fat tissue in meat animals. In Fats in animal nutrition (ed. J Wiseman), pp. 407435. Butterworths, London.
Wood, JD, Enser, M, Fisher, AV, Nute, GR, Sheard, PR, Richardson, RI, Hughes, SI and Whittington, FM 2008. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: a review. Meat Science 78, 343358.
Zimmerman, AW and Veerkamp, JH 2002. New insights into the structure and function of fatty acid-binding proteins. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 59, 10961116.
Zulkifli, RM, Parr, T, Salter, AM and Brameld, JM 2010. Regulation of ovine and porcine setaroyl CoA desaturase gene promoters by fatty acids and sterols. Journal of Animal Science 88, 25652575.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Benítez supplementary material S1
Supplementary Table

 Word (20 KB)
20 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed