In order to estimate genetic variance and heritability of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, a total of 235 (79 male and 82 female MZ, 41 male and 33 female DZ) twin pairs, recruited from 12 junior high schools in Taipei city, were studied. Statistically significant genetic variance observed for SBP, DBP, serum cholesterol and triglycerides persisted after adjustment for age and anthropometric characteristics. However, further adjustment for dietary preference, beverage consumption, and other host and environmental factors gave different results: genetic variance of adjusted SBP and DBP was still significant, while significance was found only in males for cholesterol and in neither males nor females for triglycerides. Heritability estimates of unadjusted SBP, DBP, cholesterol and triglycerides were 0.27, 0.45, 0.21 and 0.41, respectively, for males, and 0.15, 0.42, 0.41 and 0.82, respectively, for females. After adjustment for age, anthropometric characteristics, host and environmental factors, the heritability estimates of SBP, DBP and cholesterol were 0.64, 0.72 and 0.50, respectively, for males, and 0.40, 0.60 and 0.37, respectively, for females.