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This article investigates the relationship between psycho-social transition to retirement on the wellbeing and mental health of retired farmers through their adjustment to retired life. The sample was taken from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée cohort, a French prospective study of retired farmers living in rural areas in south-western France. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a sample of 530 participants. The wellbeing and mental health of retirees were investigated through three outcomes: satisfaction with current life, perceived health and depression. Multiple mediator models show that the more retirees consider retirement as a positive event, the better they adapt to the new temporality of their retirement life and the more they feel satisfied with their current life, healthy and less depressed. Acceptance of the end of working life is also a mediator in the perceived health model. These results highlight the centrality of the adjustment to the new temporality induced by retirement. They indicate that the level of this adjustment is linked to how retirement is affectively experienced, regardless of its duration.
The population of Australia is ageing, with women being the primary beneficiaries of this increase in longevity. Increasingly older individuals are being diagnosed with different chronic illnesses such as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) which causes blockages of the blood vessels in the legs resulting in pain, non-healing ulcers, immobility and the potential amputation of the threatened limb. PAD has been traditionally thought to affect men more than women. Resultingly, women have been under-represented in clinical trials of PAD and under-diagnosed in the health-care setting. However, it has recently been acknowledged that women are indeed more likely to suffer from PAD than men due to increased presence of disease and survival advantage. As such, very little is known about women's understanding of and the meaning they create of their experiences of PAD. Therefore, how older women with PAD experience the ageing process is the focus of this qualitative research project. Interviews were conducted with 11 women from Sydney, Australia aged over 65 years who had been diagnosed with PAD. The interviews were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Three manifest themes were constructed: independence and control, active and involved, and the acceptance of ageing. These findings emphasised the idea that despite the presence of a chronic illness and increased age, remaining independent and engaged with life was vital to these women's wellbeing. Their subjective experiences of ageing reflect the fact that by adapting to the physical, mental and social changes that come with growing older, the focus does not need to be on loss and decline but rather can be about the continuation of life that can be both positive and meaningful.
In this study, four models used for assessing the influence of lifecourse financial strains on later-life health (the latent period effects, pathway, social mobility and accumulative effects models) were tested in the context of Japan by using different types of health indicators: comorbidity, disabled activities of daily living, disabled cognitive function, self-rated health and depressive symptoms. We hypothesised that suitable models for describing the influence of financial strain would differ according to the type of health indicator used. Participants aged 60–92 years (N = 2,500) were obtained in 2012 by using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. The final number of participants in the sample was 1,324. The results indicate that three models – pathway, accumulative effects and social mobility – describe the influence of a person's lifecourse financial strain on comorbidity, cognitive function, self-rated health and depressive symptoms. In turn, the latent period effects model explains the influence of lifecourse financial strain on comorbidity. However, only the pathway model described the influence of lifecourse financial strain on activities of daily living. These results suggest that disadvantages in lifecourse socio-economic status influence the decline of health in elderly Japanese people, similar to people in Western countries. However, the finding that suitable models for describing the influence of socio-economic status on health will differ according to the type of health indicator is an original contribution of this study.
Person-centred care that respects a patient's personhood is the gold standard in dementia care, which is often difficult to achieve given the complexity of caring for people with dementia. This article delves into the narration style of formal care-givers from a variety of ethno-cultural backgrounds in search of linguistic cues that may be related to their emphasis on a person-centred approach to care. A qualitative study, using a discourse analysis of semi-structured interviews with 20 formal care-givers in an institutional setting, was employed. The care-givers fell into three groups: Arabs, immigrants from the former Soviet Union (IFSU) and Jews born in Israel (JBI). Our results show 20 figurative language expressions (FLEs) in the narratives of the JBI care-givers and 11 among the IFSU care-givers. In contrast, the Arab care-givers conveyed 48 FLEs. Many of the Arab care-givers’ FLEs were not associated with the ‘regular’ domains articulated by other care-givers (family, children, militaristic language) and were primarily individual-focused, emphasising the personhood of the patient. These findings, together with relevant theoretical literature, suggest that the extensive use of figurative language by Arab care-givers may be a possible tool assisting these care-givers to employ a person-centred approach, manifested in their stress on the personhood of the patient. Such tools may be useful for better achieving person-centred care for these patients.
Attitudes to ageing can predispose decision-making as governments, interest groups and electorates negotiate competing demands in the context of economic constraints and social change. This paper, based on national survey data, investigates change and stability in Australian attitudes to intergenerational equity from 2009–2010 to 2015–2017, alongside concurrent socio-economic and policy change as well as cohort succession. The emphasis is on the baby-boom cohort who are viewed as significant beneficiaries of social change relative to opportunities of younger and older cohorts. Views of older people as a needy group may be changing slightly as more enter later life with substantial wealth and resources. Our results show that there is little perception of intergenerational conflict with the exception of the Millennial cohort whose life chances are compromised by economic and expenditure constraint over the past decade. Overall, attitudes remain sympathetic to older people, especially among women and people rendered vulnerable by poor health, non-home-ownership and low socio-economic positions. The findings do not align with government portrayals of intergenerational inequalities notwithstanding many having negative views of the future and ongoing expenditure restraint strategies. At what appears to be a critical turning point in the life chances of successive cohorts, the findings indicate the interplay between attitudes and social and policy change, as well as implications for social equity and processes of attitudinal change.
The aim of this study was to explore older workers’ motivation for a full or extended working life. With particular focus on assistant nurses aged 55–64 years, working in the elderly care sector. Focus group interviews were conducted with five different groups of assistant nurses. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the interviews and five main themes were developed from the data: ‘Organisational issues’, ‘Health-related problems’, ‘Private issues’, ‘Meaningfulness and appreciation’ and ‘Social support’. Several of the main themes concerned problems with too high work demands of the assistant nurses. These findings suggest that it is important to improve the working conditions of assistant nurses in order to create a more sustainable working life. Increasing the number of staff and improving recovery opportunities and work–life balance could be important steps to improving the working conditions for this group. Finally, upgrading the competency and professionalism of assistant nurses could help to increase the motivation for a full or extended working life.
Digital storytelling provides older adults with an opportunity to become digital producers, connect with others through story and explore their life history. The authors report on the results of a digital storytelling project for older adults. The study investigated the experiences and perceived benefits of older adults who created digital stories during a ten-week course and explored the reactions of story viewers to the digital stories they viewed during a special sharing event. Eighty-eight older adult participants in Metro Vancouver who attended one of 13 courses offered were included in the study. Most of the participants were female and over half were immigrants. Results from the focus group interviews demonstrated a rich array of reported social and emotional benefits experienced through the process of creating a digital story within the course. Three main themes emerged: social connectedness through shared experience and story, reminiscence and reflecting on life, and creating a legacy. Viewers who attended a ‘Sharing Our Stories’ event reported that the stories were meaningful, well constructed and invoked a range of emotions. The researchers conclude that digital storytelling may help digital storytellers increase connectedness to others and to self. Additionally, this connectedness may extend over time through the process of examining the past to create a digital story that can serve as a legacy to connect to future generations.
This study explores how living arrangements influence perceived quality of life in an elderly population in rural South Africa. We use data from the longitudinal World Health Organization Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health Survey (WHO-SAGE) and from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). On average, older men and women who reside in single-generation and complex-linked multigenerational households report worse quality of life than those in two-generation and linear-linked multigenerational households. However, after controlling for prior wellbeing status, we find living arrangements to have a significant impact on women's perceived quality of life only, and that it is moderated by age. We conclude that not all multigenerational arrangements are protective of older adults’ wellbeing and highlight the gendered impact of living arrangements on quality of life. These results suggest the necessity to understand how living arrangements influence the social roles of older adults and change with age.
Although many studies have described society-wide changes in adult women's care-giving for ageing family members, few have examined how this informal eldercare has changed across care-givers’ lifecourse and the temporal changes across different time periods and birth cohorts. Using a hierarchical age–period–cohort model to disentangle the confounding effects of age, period and cohort, this study examines the lifecourse and temporal changes in women's informal eldercare in China that can be attributed to the processes of ageing and social transformation. It advances understanding of the extent to which urbanisation and education have affected women's care-giving over time. The results reveal positive age, period and cohort effects which, together, indicate that the tradition of xiao (filial piety) is in a stable state or even resurgent. Higher education and urban residency are both positively related to women's care-giving behaviour. As women age, the gap between residency differences in eldercare decreases. This study supports the argument that xiao culture is resilient and resistant to change, and that education can function as an enabler to promote it.