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We consider a model for the evolution of damage in elastic materials originally proposed by Michel Frémond. For the corresponding PDE system, we prove existence and uniqueness of a local in time strong solution. The main novelty of our result stands in the fact that, differently from previous contributions, we assume no occurrence of any type of regularising terms.
We extend previous weak well-posedness results obtained in Frigeri et al. (2017, Solvability, Regularity, and Optimal Control of Boundary Value Problems for PDEs, Vol. 22, Springer, Cham, pp. 217–254) concerning a non-local variant of a diffuse interface tumour model proposed by Hawkins-Daarud et al. (2012, Int. J. Numer. Method Biomed. Engng.28, 3–24). The model consists of a non-local Cahn–Hilliard equation with degenerate mobility and singular potential for the phase field variable, coupled to a reaction–diffusion equation for the concentration of a nutrient. We prove the existence of strong solutions to the model and establish some high-order continuous dependence estimates, even in the presence of concentration-dependent mobilities for the nutrient variable in two spatial dimensions. Then, we apply the new regularity results to study an inverse problem identifying the initial tumour distribution from measurements at the terminal time. Formulating the Tikhonov regularised inverse problem as a constrained minimisation problem, we establish the existence of minimisers and derive first-order necessary optimality conditions.
An analysis is undertaken of the formation and stability of localised patterns in a 1D Schanckenberg model, with source terms in both the activator and inhibitor fields. The aim is to illustrate the connection between semi-strong asymptotic analysis and the theory of localised pattern formation within a pinning region created by a subcritical Turing bifurcation. A two-parameter bifurcation diagram of homogeneous, periodic and localised patterns is obtained numerically. A natural asymptotic scaling for semi-strong interaction theory is found where an activator source term \[a = O(\varepsilon )\] and the inhibitor source \[b = O({\varepsilon ^2})\], with ε2 being the diffusion ratio. The theory predicts a fold of spike solutions leading to onset of localised patterns upon increase of b from zero. Non-local eigenvalue arguments show that both branches emanating from the fold are unstable, with the higher intensity branch becoming stable through a Hopf bifurcation as b increases beyond the \[O(\varepsilon )\] regime. All analytical results are found to agree with numerics. In particular, the asymptotic expression for the fold is found to be accurate beyond its region of validity, and its extension into the pinning region is found to form the low b boundary of the so-called homoclinic snaking region. Further numerical results point to both sub and supercritical Hopf bifurcation and novel spikeinsertion dynamics.
We study the Muskat problem describing the vertical motion of two immiscible fluids in a two-dimensional homogeneous porous medium in an Lp-setting with p ∈ (1, ∞). The Sobolev space
$W_p^s(\mathbb R)$
with s = 1+1/p is a critical space for this problem. We prove, for each s ∈ (1+1/p, 2) that the Rayleigh–Taylor condition identifies an open subset of
$W_p^s(\mathbb R)$
within which the Muskat problem is of parabolic type. This enables us to establish the local well-posedness of the problem in all these subcritical spaces together with a parabolic smoothing property.
This study considers a model for oncolytic virotherapy, as given by the reaction–diffusion–taxis system
\[\begin{eqnarray*} \left\{ \begin{array}{l} u_t = \Delta u - \nabla (u\nabla v)-\rho uz, \\ v_t = - (u+w)v, \\ w_t = D_w \Delta w - w + uz, \\ z_t = D_z \Delta z - z - uz + \beta w, \end{array} \right. \end{eqnarray*}\]
in a smoothly bounded domain Ω ⊂ ℝ2, with parameters Dw > 0, Dz > 0, β > 0 and ρ ⩾ 0.
Previous analysis has asserted that for all reasonably regular initial data, an associated no-flux type initial-boundary value problem admits a global classical solution, and that this solution is bounded if β < 1, whereas whenever β > 1 and $({1}/{|\Omega |})\int _\Omega u(\cdot ,0) > 1/(\beta -1)$, infinite-time blow-up occurs at least in the particular case when ρ = 0.
In order to provide an appropriate complement to this, the current study reveals that for any ρ ⩾ 0 and arbitrary β > 0, at each prescribed level γ ∈ (0, 1/(β − 1)+) one can identify an L∞-neighbourhood of the homogeneous distribution (u, v, w, z) ≡ (γ, 0, 0, 0) within which all initial data lead to globally bounded solutions that stabilize towards the constant equilibrium (u∞, 0, 0, 0) with some u∞ > 0.
In this paper, we investigate the fast signal diffusion limit of solutions of the fully parabolic Keller–Segel–Stokes system to solution of the parabolic–elliptic-fluid counterpart in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional bounded domain with smooth boundary. Under the natural volume-filling assumption, we establish an algebraic convergence rate of the fast signal diffusion limit for general large initial data by developing a series of subtle bootstrap arguments for combinational functionals and using some maximal regularities. In our current setting, in particular, we can remove the restriction to asserting convergence only along some subsequence in Wang–Winkler and the second author (Cal. Var., 2019).
We study the two-phase Stokes flow driven by surface tension with two fluids of equal viscosity, separated by an asymptotically flat interface with graph geometry. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional with the fluids filling the entire space. We prove well-posedness and parabolic smoothing in Sobolev spaces up to critical regularity. The main technical tools are an analysis of nonlinear singular integral operators arising from the hydrodynamic single-layer potential and abstract results on nonlinear parabolic evolution equations.
Let E and D be open subsets of
$\mathbb {R}^{n+1}$
such that
$\overline {D}$
is a compact subset of E, and let v be a supertemperature on E. A temperature u on D is called extendable by v if there is a supertemperature w on E such that
$w=u$
on D and
$w=v$
on
$E\backslash \overline D$
. From earlier work of N. A. Watson, [‘Extendable temperatures’, Bull. Aust. Math. Soc.100 (2019), 297–303], either there is a unique temperature extendable by v, or there are infinitely many; a necessary condition for uniqueness is that the generalised solution of the Dirichlet problem on D corresponding to the restriction of v to
$\partial _eD$
is equal to the greatest thermic minorant of v on D. In this paper we first give a condition for nonuniqueness and an example to show that this necessary condition is not sufficient. We then give a uniqueness theorem involving the thermal and cothermal fine topologies and deduce a corollary involving only parabolic and coparabolic tusks.
In this paper, we propose and study an almost periodic reaction–diffusion epidemic model in which disease latency, spatial heterogeneity and general seasonal fluctuations are incorporated. The model is given by a spatially nonlocal reaction–diffusion system with a fixed time delay. We first characterise the upper Lyapunov exponent
$${\lambda ^*}$$
for a class of almost periodic reaction–diffusion equations with a fixed time delay and provide a numerical method to compute it. On this basis, the global threshold dynamics of this model is established in terms of
$${\lambda ^*}$$
. It is shown that the disease-free almost periodic solution is globally attractive if
$${\lambda ^*} < 0$$
, while the disease is persistent if
$${\lambda ^*} < 0$$
. By virtue of numerical simulations, we investigate the effects of diffusion rate, incubation period and spatial heterogeneity on disease transmission.
The propagation of gradient flow structures from microscopic to macroscopic models is a topic of high current interest. In this paper, we discuss this propagation in a model for the diffusion of particles interacting via hard-core exclusion or short-range repulsive potentials. We formulate the microscopic model as a high-dimensional gradient flow in the Wasserstein metric for an appropriate free-energy functional. Then we use the JKO approach to identify the asymptotics of the metric and the free-energy functional beyond the lowest order for single particle densities in the limit of small particle volumes by matched asymptotic expansions. While we use a propagation of chaos assumption at far distances, we consider correlations at small distance in the expansion. In this way, we obtain a clear picture of the emergence of a macroscopic gradient structure incorporating corrections in the free-energy functional due to the volume exclusion.
We propose and investigate a stage-structured SLIRM epidemic model with latent period in a spatially continuous habitat. We first show the existence of semi-travelling waves that connect the unstable disease-free equilibrium as the wave coordinate goes to − ∞, provided that the basic reproduction number $\mathcal {R}_0 > 1$ and $c > c_*$ for some positive number $c_*$. We then use a combination of asymptotic estimates, Laplace transform and Cauchy's integral theorem to show the persistence of semi-travelling waves. Based on the persistent property, we construct a Lyapunov functional to prove the convergence of the semi-travelling wave to an endemic (positive) equilibrium as the wave coordinate goes to + ∞. In addition, by the Laplace transform technique, the non-existence of bounded semi-travelling wave is also proved when $\mathcal {R}_0 > 1$ and $0 < c < c_*$. This indicates that $c_*$ is indeed the minimum wave speed. Finally simulations are given to illustrate the evolution of profiles.
This paper deals with the logistic Keller–Segel model
\[ \begin{cases} u_t = \Delta u - \chi \nabla\cdot(u\nabla v) + \kappa u - \mu u^2, \\ v_t = \Delta v - v + u \end{cases} \]
in bounded two-dimensional domains (with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions and for parameters χ, κ ∈ ℝ and μ > 0), and shows that any nonnegative initial data (u0, v0) ∈ L1 × W1,2 lead to global solutions that are smooth in $\bar {\Omega }\times (0,\infty )$.
In this paper, we investigate the global boundedness, asymptotic stability and pattern formation of predator–prey systems with density-dependent prey-taxis in a two-dimensional bounded domain with Neumann boundary conditions, where the coefficients of motility (diffusiq‘dfdon) and mobility (prey-taxis) of the predator are correlated through a prey density-dependent motility function. We establish the existence of classical solutions with uniform-in time bound and the global stability of the spatially homogeneous prey-only steady states and coexistence steady states under certain conditions on parameters by constructing Lyapunov functionals. With numerical simulations, we further demonstrate that spatially homogeneous time-periodic patterns, stationary spatially inhomogeneous patterns and chaotic spatio-temporal patterns are all possible for the parameters outside the stability regime. We also find from numerical simulations that the temporal dynamics between linearised system and nonlinear systems are quite different, and the prey density-dependent motility function can trigger the pattern formation.
We study the existence of entropy solutions by assuming the right-hand side function f to be an integrable function for some elliptic nonlocal p-Laplacian type problems. Moreover, the existence of weak solutions for the corresponding parabolic cases is also established. The main aim of this paper is to provide some positive answers for the two questions proposed by Chipot and de Oliveira (Math. Ann., 2019, 375, 283-306).
We consider the Cauchy problem for a general class of parabolic partial differential equations in the Euclidean space ℝN. We show that given a weighted Lp-space $L_w^p({\mathbb {R}}^N)$ with 1 ⩽ p < ∞ and a fast growing weight w, there is a Schauder basis $(e_n)_{n=1}^\infty$ in $L_w^p({\mathbb {R}}^N)$ with the following property: given an arbitrary positive integer m there exists nm > 0 such that, if the initial data f belongs to the closed linear span of en with n ⩾ nm, then the decay rate of the solution of the problem is at least t−m for large times t.
The result generalizes the recent study of the authors concerning the classical linear heat equation. We present variants of the result having different methods of proofs and also consider finite polynomial decay rates instead of unlimited m.
We propose and study a class of parabolic-ordinary differential equation models involving chemotaxis and haptotaxis of a species following signals indirectly produced by another, non-motile one. The setting is motivated by cancer invasion mediated by interactions with the tumour microenvironment, but has much wider applicability, being able to comprise descriptions of biologically quite different problems. As a main mathematical feature constituting a core difference to both classical Keller–Segel chemotaxis systems and Chaplain–Lolas type chemotaxis–haptotaxis systems, the considered model accounts for certain types of indirect signal production mechanisms. The main results assert unique global classical solvability under suitably mild assumptions on the system parameter functions in associated spatially two-dimensional initial-boundary value problems. In particular, this rigorously confirms that at least in two-dimensional settings, the considered indirectness in signal production induces a significant blow-up suppressing tendency also in taxis systems substantially more general than some particular examples for which corresponding effects have recently been observed.
We consider a Keller–Segel model that describes the cellular chemotactic movement away from repulsive chemical subject to logarithmic sensitivity function over a confined region in
${{\mathbb{R}}^n},\,n \le 2$
. This sensitivity function describes the empirically tested Weber–Fecher’s law of living organism’s perception of a physical stimulus. We prove that, regardless of chemotaxis strength and initial data, this repulsive system is globally well-posed and the constant solution is the global and exponential in time attractor. Our results confirm the ‘folklore’ that chemorepulsion inhibits the formation of non-trivial steady states within the logarithmic chemotaxis model, hence preventing cellular aggregation therein.
The work in this paper concerns the study of different approximations for one-dimensional one-phase Stefan-like problems with a space-dependent latent heat. It is considered two different problems, which differ from each other in their boundary condition imposed at the fixed face: Dirichlet and Robin conditions. The approximate solutions are obtained by applying the heat balance integral method (HBIM), the modified HBIM and the refined integral method (RIM). Taking advantage of the exact analytical solutions, we compare and test the accuracy of the approximate solutions. The analysis is carried out using the dimensionless generalised Stefan number (Ste) and Biot number (Bi). It is also studied the case when Bi goes to infinity in the problem with a convective condition, recovering the approximate solutions when a temperature condition is imposed at the fixed face. Some numerical simulations are provided in order to assert which of the approximate integral methods turns out to be optimal. Moreover, we pose an approximate technique based on minimising the least-squares error, obtaining also approximate solutions for the classical Stefan problem.
This paper deals with the global existence for a class of Keller–Segel model with signal-dependent motility and general logistic term under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a higher-dimensional smoothly bounded domain, which can be written as
then the considered system possesses a global classical solution for all sufficiently smooth initial data. Furthermore, the solution converges to the equilibrium