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The Kirchhoff approximation is widely used to describe the scatter of elastodynamic waves. It simulates the scattered field as the convolution of the free-space Green’s tensor with the geometrical elastodynamics approximation to the total field on the scatterer surface and, therefore, cannot be used to describe nongeometrical phenomena, such as head waves. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that an alternative approximation, the convolution of the far-field asymptotics of the Lamb’s Green’s tensor with incident surface tractions, has no such limitation. This is done by simulating the scatter of a critical Gaussian beam of transverse motions from an infinite plane. The results are of interest in ultrasonic nondestructive testing.
In this paper we analyse the non-wandering set of one-dimensional Greenberg–Hastings cellular automaton models for excitable media with $e\geqslant 1$ excited and $r\geqslant 1$ refractory states and determine its (strictly positive) topological entropy. We show that it results from a Devaney chaotic closed invariant subset of the non-wandering set that consists of colliding and annihilating travelling waves, which is conjugate to a skew-product dynamical system of coupled shift dynamics. Moreover, we determine the remaining part of the non-wandering set explicitly as a Markov system with strictly less topological entropy that also scales differently for large $e,r$.
This paper proposes a novel distance derivative weighted ENO (DDWENO) limiter based on fixed reconstruction stencil and applies it to the second- and highorder finite volume method on unstructured grids. We choose the standard deviation coefficients of the flow variables as the smooth indicators by using the k-exact reconstruction method, and obtain the limited derivatives of the flow variables by weighting all derivatives of each cell according to smoothness. Furthermore, an additional weighting coefficient related to distance is introduced to emphasize the contribution of the central cell in smooth regions. The developed limiter, combining the advantages of the slope limiters and WENO-type limiters, can achieve the similar effect of WENO schemes in the fixed stencil with high computational efficiency. The numerical cases demonstrate that the DDWENO limiter can preserve the numerical accuracy in smooth regions, and capture the shock waves clearly and steeply as well.
In this paper, we propose a new energy-preserving scheme and a new momentum-preserving scheme for the modified regularized long wave equation. The proposed schemes are designed by using the discrete variational derivative method and the finite volume element method. For comparison, we also propose a finite volume element scheme. The conservation properties of the proposed schemes are analyzed and we find that the energy-preserving scheme can precisely conserve the discrete total mass and total energy, the momentum-preserving scheme can precisely conserve the discrete total mass and total momentum, while the finite volume element scheme merely conserve the discrete total mass. We also analyze their linear stability property using the Von Neumann theory and find that the proposed schemes are unconditionally linear stable. Finally, we present some numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
Consider the time-harmonic acoustic scattering from an extended elastic body surrounded by a finite number of point-like obstacles in a fluid. We assume point source waves are emitted from arrayed transducers and the signals of scattered near-field data are recorded by receivers not far away from the scatterers (compared to the incident wavelength). The forward scattering can be modeled as an interaction problem between acoustic and elastic waves together with a multiple scattering problem between the extend solid and point scatterers. We prove a necessary and sufficient condition that can be used simultaneously to recover the shape of the extended elastic solid and to locate the positions of point scatterers. The essential ingredient in our analysis is the outgoing-to-incoming (OtI) operator applied to the resulting near-field response matrix (or operator). In the first part, we justify the MUSIC algorithm for locating point scatterers from near-field measurements. In the second part, we apply the factorization method, the continuous analogue of MUSIC, to the two-scale scattering problem for determining both extended and point scatterers. Numerical examples in 2D are demonstrated to show the validity and accuracy of our inversion algorithms.
The purpose of this paper is to numerically realize the inverse scattering scheme proposed in  of reconstructing complex elastic objects by a single far-field measurement. The unknown elastic scatterers might consist of both rigid bodies and traction-free cavities with components of multiscale sizes presented simultaneously. We conduct extensive numerical experiments to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the imaging scheme proposed in . Moreover, we develop a two-stage technique, which can significantly speed up the reconstruction to yield a fast imaging scheme.
In this paper, we study the Camassa-Holm equation and the Degasperis-Procesi equation. The two equations are in the family of integrable peakon equations, and both have very rich geometric properties. Based on these geometric structures, we construct the geometric numerical integrators for simulating their soliton solutions. The Camassa-Holm equation and the Degasperis-Procesi equation have many common properties, however they also have the significant difference, for example there exist the shock wave solutions for the Degasperis-Procesi equation. By using the symplectic Fourier pseudo-spectral integrator, we simulate the peakon solutions of the two equations. To illustrate the smooth solitons and shock wave solutions of the DP equation, we use the splitting technique and combine the composition methods. In the numerical experiments, comparisons of these two kinds of methods are presented in terms of accuracy, computational cost and invariants preservation.
We study the reflection of membrane-coupled gravity waves in deep water against a vertical barrier with a gap. A floating membrane is attached on both sides of the barrier. The associated mixed boundary value problem, which is not particularly well posed, is analysed. We utilize an orthogonal mode-coupling relation to reduce the problem to solving a set of dual integral equations with trigonometric kernel. We solve these by using a weakly singular integral equation. The reflection coefficient is determined explicitly, while having freedom to clamp the membrane with a spring of a certain stiffness on only one side of the vertical barrier. The physical problem is of capillary–gravity wave scattering by a vertical barrier with a gap, when the membrane density is neglected. In this case, the reflection coefficient is known up to an undetermined edge slope on either side of the barrier. The scattering quantity is computed and presented graphically against a wave parameter for different values of nondimensional parameters pertaining to the structures involved in the problem.
Jakeman's random walk model with step number fluctuations describes the coherent amplitude scattered from a rough medium in terms of the summation of individual scatterers' contributions. If the scattering population conforms to a birth-death immigration model, the resulting amplitude is K-distributed. In this context, we derive a class of diffusion processes as an extension of the ordinary birth-death immigration model. We show how this class encompasses four different cross-section models commonly studied in the literature. We conclude by discussing the advantages of this unified description.
A synthesis is presented of two recent studies on modelling the nonlinear neuro-mechanical hearing processes in mosquitoes and in mammals. In each case, a hierarchy of models is considered in attempts to understand data that shows nonlinear amplification and compression of incoming sound signals. The insect’s hearing is tuned to the vicinity of a single input frequency. Nonlinear response occurs via an arrangement of many dual capacity neuro-mechanical units called scolopidia within the Johnston’s organ. It is shown how the observed data can be captured by a simple nonlinear oscillator model that is derived from homogenization of a more complex model involving a radial array of scolopidia. The physiology of the mammalian cochlea is much more complex, with hearing occurring via a travelling wave along a tapered, compartmentalized tube. Waves travel a frequency-dependent distance along the tube, at which point they are amplified and “heard”. Local models are reviewed for the pickup mechanism, within the outer hair cells of the organ of Corti. The current debate in the literature is elucidated, on the relative importance of two possible nonlinear mechanisms: active hair bundles and somatic motility. It is argued that the best experimental agreement can be found when the nonlinear terms include longitudinal coupling, the physiological basis of which is described. A discussion section summarizes the lessons learnt from both studies and attempts to shed light on the more general question of what constitutes a good mathematical model of a complex physiological process.
It is well known that transcritical flow past an obstacle may generate undular bores propagating away from the obstacle. This flow has been successfully modelled in the framework of the forced Korteweg–de Vries equation, where numerical simulations and asymptotic analyses have shown that the unsteady undular bores are connected by a locally steady solution over the obstacle. In this paper we present an overview of the underlying theory, together with some recent work on the case where the obstacle has a large width.
The stochastic Lagrange wave model is a realistic alternative to the Gaussian linear wave model, which has been successfully used in ocean engineering for more than half a century. In this paper we present the slope distributions and other characteristic distributions at level crossings for asymmetric Lagrange time waves, i.e. what can be observed at a fixed measuring station, thereby extending results previously given for space waves. The distributions are given as expectations in a multivariate normal distribution, and they have to be evaluated by simulation or numerical integration. Interesting characteristic variables are the slope in time, the slope in space, and the vertical particle velocity when the waves are observed close to instances when the water level crosses a predetermined level. The theory has been made possible by recent generalizations of Rice's formula for the expected number of marked crossings in random fields.
Scattering of membrane coupled gravity waves in deep water by partial vertical barriers is investigated by the recently developed expansion formulae for wave structure interaction problems. The horizontal thin membrane is considered to be under uniform tension and is covering the free surface. The analysis is based on the linearized theory of water waves, and by combining the kinematic and dynamic conditions at the membrane covered surface, one may derive a not so well-posed mixed boundary value problem for Laplace’s equation with third-order boundary condition. The flexible membrane is attached by a spring to the surface piercing barrier, giving suitable edge conditions for the unique solution. The boundary value problem has been converted into dual integral equations with kernels composed of trigonometric functions, which are then solved analytically. The important physical quantities such as reflection and transmission coefficients for both cases of submerged and surface piercing barriers are obtained analytically in terms of modified Bessel functions. It is found that complete reflection or transmission is possible at certain resonant frequencies for the incident membrane coupled waves. Numerical results are plotted and discussed for different values of the nondimensional membrane tension parameter.
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