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The existence and nonexistence of semi-trivial or coexistence steady-state solutions of one-dimensional competition models in an unstirred chemostat are studied by establishing new results on systems of Hammerstein integral equations via the classical fixed point index theory. We provide three ranges for the two parameters involved in the competition models under which the models have no semi-trivial and coexistence steady-state solutions or have semi-trivial steady-state solutions but no coexistence steady-state solutions or have semi-trivial or coexistence steady-state solutions. It remains open to find the largest range for the two parameters under which the models have only coexistence steady-state solutions. We apply the new results on systems of Hammerstein integral equations to obtain results on steady-state solutions of systems of reaction-diffusion equations with general separated boundary conditions. Such type of results have not been studied in the literature. However, these results are very useful for studying the competition models in an unstirred chemostat. Our results on Hammerstein integral equations and differential equations generalize and improve some previous results.
We prove that positive solutions of an integral equation of Wolff type are radially symmetric and decreasing about some point in
. The hypotheses allow a wider range of exponents and are easier to apply than those in previous work.
Global weak solutions to the continuous Smoluchowski coagulation equation (SCE) are constructed for coagulation kernels featuring an algebraic singularity for small volumes and growing linearly for large volumes, thereby extending previous results obtained in Norris (1999) and Cueto Camejo & Warnecke (2015). In particular, linear growth at infinity of the coagulation kernel is included and the initial condition may have an infinite second moment. Furthermore, all weak solutions (in a suitable sense) including the ones constructed herein are shown to be mass-conserving, a property which was proved in Norris (1999) under stronger assumptions. The existence proof relies on a weak compactness method in L1 and a by-product of the analysis is that both conservative and non-conservative approximations to the SCE lead to weak solutions which are then mass-conserving.
We prove new results on the existence, non-existence, localization and multiplicity of non-trivial radial solutions of a system of elliptic boundary value problems on exterior domains subject to non-local, nonlinear, functional boundary conditions. Our approach relies on fixed point index theory. As a by-product of our theory we provide an answer to an open question posed by do Ó, Lorca, Sánchez and Ubilla. We include some examples with explicit nonlinearities in order to illustrate our theory.
We consider a broad class of systems of nonlinear integro-differential equations posed on the real line that arise as Euler–Lagrange equations to energies involving nonlinear nonlocal interactions. Although these equations are not readily cast as dynamical systems, we develop a calculus that yields a natural Hamiltonian formalism. In particular, we formulate Noether’s theorem in this context, identify a degenerate symplectic structure, and derive Hamiltonian differential equations on finite-dimensional center manifolds when those exist. Our formalism yields new natural conserved quantities. For Euler–Lagrange equations arising as traveling-wave equations in gradient flows, we identify Lyapunov functions. We provide several applications to pattern-forming systems including neural field and phase separation problems.
We extend the full wavefield modeling with forward scattering theory and Volterra Renormalization to a vertically varying two-parameter (velocity and density) acoustic medium. The forward scattering series, derived by applying Born-Neumann iterative procedure to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation (LSE), is a well known tool for modeling and imaging. However, it has limited convergence properties depending on the strength of contrast between the actual and reference medium or the angle of incidence of a plane wave component. Here, we introduce the Volterra renormalization technique to the LSE. The renormalized LSE and related Neumann series are absolutely convergent for any strength of perturbation and any incidence angle. The renormalized LSE can further be separated into two sub-Volterra type integral equations, which are then solved noniteratively. We apply the approach to velocity-only, density-only, and both velocity and density perturbations. We demonstrate that this Volterra Renormalization modeling is a promising and efficient method. In addition, it can also provide insight for developing a scattering theory-based direct inversion method.
We study the biharmonic equation Δ2u = u−α, 0 < α < 1, in a smooth and bounded domain Ω ⊂ ℝn, n ≥ 2, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions. Under some suitable assumptions on Ω related to the positivity of the Green function for the biharmonic operator, we prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution.
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