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Assume a point
$z$
lies in the open unit disk
$\mathbb{D}$
of the complex plane
$\mathbb{C}$
and
$f$
is an analytic self-map of
$\mathbb{D}$
fixing 0. Then Schwarz’s lemma gives
$|f(z)|\leq |z|$
, and Dieudonné’s lemma asserts that
$|f^{\prime }(z)|\leq \min \{1,(1+|z|^{2})/(4|z|(1-|z|^{2}))\}$
. We prove a sharp upper bound for
$|f^{\prime \prime }(z)|$
depending only on
$|z|$
.
We generalize work by Bourgain and Kontorovich [On the local-global conjecture for integral Apollonian gaskets, Invent. Math. 196 (2014), 589–650] and Zhang [On the local-global principle for integral Apollonian 3-circle packings, J. Reine Angew. Math. 737, (2018), 71–110], proving an almost local-to-global property for the curvatures of certain circle packings, to a large class of Kleinian groups. Specifically, we associate in a natural way an infinite family of integral packings of circles to any Kleinian group
${\mathcal{A}}\leqslant \text{PSL}_{2}(K)$
satisfying certain conditions, where
$K$
is an imaginary quadratic field, and show that the curvatures of the circles in any such packing satisfy an almost local-to-global principle. A key ingredient in the proof is that
${\mathcal{A}}$
possesses a spectral gap property, which we prove for any infinite-covolume, geometrically finite, Zariski dense Kleinian group in
$\operatorname{PSL}_{2}({\mathcal{O}}_{K})$
containing a Zariski dense subgroup of
$\operatorname{PSL}_{2}(\mathbb{Z})$
.
We shall explain here an idea to generalize classical complex analytic Kleinian group theory to any odd-dimensional cases. For a certain class of discrete subgroups of
$\text{PGL}_{2n+1}(\mathbf{C})$
acting on
$\mathbf{P}^{2n+1}$
, we can define their domains of discontinuity in a canonical manner, regarding an
$n$
-dimensional projective linear subspace in
$\mathbf{P}^{2n+1}$
as a point, like a point in the classical one-dimensional case. Many interesting (compact) non-Kähler manifolds appear systematically as the canonical quotients of the domains. In the last section, we shall give some examples.
We study Lagrange spectra at cusps of finite area Riemann surfaces. These spectra are penetration spectra that describe the asymptotic depths of penetration of geodesics in the cusps. Their study is in particular motivated by Diophantine approximation on Fuchsian groups. In the classical case of the modular surface and classical Diophantine approximation, Hall proved in 1947 that the classical Lagrange spectrum contains a half-line, known as a Hall ray. We generalize this result to the context of Riemann surfaces with cusps and Diophantine approximation on Fuchsian groups. One can measure excursion into a cusp both with respect to a natural height function or, more generally, with respect to any proper function. We prove the existence of a Hall ray for the Lagrange spectrum of any non-cocompact, finite covolume Fuchsian group with respect to any given cusp, both when the penetration is measured by a height function induced by the imaginary part as well as by any proper function close to it with respect to the Lipschitz norm. This shows that Hall rays are stable under (Lipschitz) perturbations. As a main tool, we use the boundary expansion developed by Bowen and Series to code geodesics and produce a geometric continued fraction-like expansion and some of the ideas in Hall’s original argument. A key element in the proof of the results for proper functions is a generalization of Hall’s theorem on the sum of Cantor sets, where we consider functions which are small perturbations in the Lipschitz norm of the sum.
We find an explicit expression for the zeta-regularized determinant of (the Friedrichs extensions of) the Laplacians on a compact Riemann surface of genus one with conformal metric of curvature
$1$
having a single conical singularity of angle
$4\unicode[STIX]{x1D70B}$
.
In this paper, we study an interesting curve, the so-called Manhattan curve, associated with a pair of boundary-preserving Fuchsian representations of a (non-compact) surface; in particular, representations corresponding to Riemann surfaces with cusps. Using thermodynamic formalism (for countable state Markov shifts), we prove the analyticity of the Manhattan curve. Moreover, we derive several dynamical and geometric rigidity results, which generalize results of Burger [Intersection, the Manhattan curve, and Patterson–Sullivan theory in rank 2. Int. Math. Res. Not.1993(7) (1993), 217–225] and Sharp [The Manhattan curve and the correlation of length spectra on hyperbolic surfaces. Math. Z.228(4) (1998), 745–750] for convex cocompact Fuchsian representations.
The genus spectrum of a finite group G is the set of all g such that G acts faithfully on a compact Riemann surface of genus g. It is an open problem to find a general description of the genus spectrum of the groups in interesting classes, such as the Abelian p-groups. Motivated by earlier work of Talu for odd primes, we develop a general combinatorial method, for arbitrary primes, to obtain a structured description of the so-called reduced genus spectrum of Abelian p-groups, including the reduced minimum genus. In particular, we determine the complete genus spectrum for a large subclass, namely, those having ‘large’ defining invariants. With our method we construct infinitely many counterexamples to a conjecture of Talu, which states that an Abelian p-group is recoverable from its genus spectrum. Finally, we give a series of examples of our method, in the course of which we prove, for example, that almost all elementary Abelian p-groups are uniquely determined by their minimum genus, and that almost all Abelian p-groups of exponent p2 are uniquely determined by their minimum genus and Kulkarni invariant.
We consider a scale invariant Cassinian metric and a Gromov hyperbolic metric. We discuss a distortion property of the scale invariant Cassinian metric under Möbius maps of a punctured ball onto another punctured ball. We obtain a modulus of continuity of the identity map from a domain equipped with the scale invariant Cassinian metric (or the Gromov hyperbolic metric) onto the same domain equipped with the Euclidean metric. Finally, we establish the quasi-invariance properties of both metrics under quasiconformal maps.
Every finite group
$G$
acts on some nonorientable unbordered surfaces. The minimal topological genus of those surfaces is called the symmetric crosscap number of
$G$
. It is known that 3 is not the symmetric crosscap number of any group but it remains unknown whether there are other such values, called gaps. In this paper we obtain group presentations which allow one to find the actions realizing the symmetric crosscap number of groups of each group of order less than or equal to 63.
In this paper we show that a polygonal quasiconformal mapping always corresponds to a chord-arc curve. Furthermore, we find that the set of curves corresponding to polygonal quasiconformal mappings is path connected in the set of all bounded chord-arc curves.
Zhou et al. [‘On weakly non-decreasable quasiconformal mappings’, J. Math. Anal. Appl.386 (2012), 842–847] proved that, in a Teichmüller equivalence class, there exists an extremal quasiconformal mapping with a weakly nondecreasable dilatation. They asked whether a weakly nondecreasable dilatation is a nondecreasable dilatation. The aim of this paper is to give a negative answer to their problem. We also construct a Teichmüller class such that it contains an infinite number of weakly nondecreasable extremal representatives, only one of which is nondecreasable.
Explicit examples of both hyperelliptic and non-hyperelliptic curves which cannot be defined over their field of moduli are known in the literature. In this paper, we construct a tower of explicit examples of such kind of curves. In that tower there are both hyperelliptic curves and non-hyperelliptic curves.
This paper is devoted to determine the connectedness of the branch loci of the moduli space of non-orientable unbordered Klein surfaces. We obtain a result similar to Nielsen's in order to determine topological conjugacy of automorphisms of prime order on such surfaces. Using this result we prove that the branch locus is connected for surfaces of topological genus 4 and 5.
Thurston introduced shear deformations (cataclysms) on geodesic laminations–deformations including left and right displacements along geodesics. For hyperbolic surfaces with cusps, we consider shear deformations on disjoint unions of ideal geodesics. The length of a balanced weighted sum of ideal geodesics is defined and the Weil–Petersson (WP) duality of shears and the defined length is established. The Poisson bracket of a pair of balanced weight systems on a set of disjoint ideal geodesics is given in terms of an elementary
$2$
-form. The symplectic geometry of balanced weight systems on ideal geodesics is developed. Equality of the Fock shear coordinate algebra and the WP Poisson algebra is established. The formula for the WP Riemannian pairing of shears is also presented.
Suppose that
$\def \xmlpi #1{}\def \mathsfbi #1{\boldsymbol {\mathsf {#1}}}\let \le =\leqslant \let \leq =\leqslant \let \ge =\geqslant \let \geq =\geqslant \def \Pr {\mathit {Pr}}\def \Fr {\mathit {Fr}}\def \Rey {\mathit {Re}}E$
and
$E'$
denote real Banach spaces with dimension at least 2 and that
$D\subset E$
and
$D'\subset E'$
are domains. Let
$\varphi :[0,\infty )\to [0,\infty )$
be a homeomorphism with
$\varphi (t)\geq t$
. We say that a homeomorphism
$f: D\to D'$
is
$\varphi $
-FQC if for every subdomain
$D_1 \subset D$
, we have
$\varphi ^{-1} (k_D(x,y))\leq k_{D'} (f(x),f(y))\leq \varphi (k_D(x,y))$
holds for all
$x,y\in D_1$
. In this paper, we establish, in terms of the
$j_D$
metric, a necessary and sufficient condition for a homeomorphism
$f: E \to E'$
to be FQC. Moreover, we give, in terms of the
$j_D$
metric, a sufficient condition for a homeomorphism
$f: D\to D'$
to be FQC. On the other hand, we show that this condition is not necessary.
We exhibit a numerical method to compute three-point branched covers of the complex projective line. We develop algorithms for working explicitly with Fuchsian triangle groups and their finite-index subgroups, and we use these algorithms to compute power series expansions of modular forms on these groups.
We study the automorphic Green function
$\mathop{\rm gr}\nolimits _\Gamma $
on quotients of the hyperbolic plane by cofinite Fuchsian groups
$\Gamma $
, and the canonical Green function
$\mathop{\rm gr}\nolimits ^{\rm can}_X$
on the standard compactification
$X$
of such a quotient. We use a limiting procedure, starting from the resolvent kernel, and lattice point estimates for the action of
$\Gamma $
on the hyperbolic plane to prove an “approximate spectral representation” for
$\mathop{\rm gr}\nolimits _\Gamma $
. Combining this with bounds on Maaß forms and Eisenstein series for
$\Gamma $
, we prove explicit bounds on
$\mathop{\rm gr}\nolimits _\Gamma $
. From these results on
$\mathop{\rm gr}\nolimits _\Gamma $
and new explicit bounds on the canonical
$(1,1)$
-form of
$X$
, we deduce explicit bounds on
$\mathop{\rm gr}\nolimits ^{\rm can}_X$
.
The complexity of a branched cover of a Riemann surface M to the Riemann sphere S2 is defined as its degree times the hyperbolic area of the complement of its branching set in S2. The complexity of M is defined as the infimum of the complexities of all branched covers of M to S2. We prove that if M is a connected, closed, orientable Riemann surface of genus g≥1, then its complexity equals 2π(mmin+2g−2) , where mmin is the minimum total length of a branch datum realisable by a branched cover p:M→S2.
Let G⊂SU(2,1) be nonelementary and S be its minimal generating system. In this paper, we show that if S satisfies some conditions, then S can be replaced by a minimal generating system S1consisting only of loxodromic elements.