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We discuss a metric description of the divergence of a (projectively) Anosov flow in dimension 3, in terms of its associated expansion rates and give metric and contact geometric characterizations of when a projectively Anosov flow is Anosov. We then study the symmetries that the existence of an invariant volume form yields on the geometry of an Anosov flow, from various viewpoints of the theory of contact hyperbolas, Reeb dynamics, and Liouville geometry, and give characterizations of when an Anosov flow is volume preserving, in terms of those theories. We finally use our study to show that the bi-contact surgery operations of Salmoiraghi [Surgery on Anosov flows using bi-contact geometry. Preprint, 2021, arXiv:2104.07109; and Goodman surgery and projectively Anosov flows. Preprint, 2022, arXiv:2202.01328] can be applied in an arbitrary small neighborhood of a periodic orbit of any Anosov flow. In particular, we conclude that the Goodman surgery of Anosov flows can be performed using the bi-contact surgery operations of Salmoiraghi [Goodman surgery and projectively Anosov flows. Preprint, 2022, arXiv:2202.01328].
Let $k\geq 2$ and $(X_{i}, \mathcal {T}_{i}), i=1,\ldots ,k$, be $\mathbb {Z}^{d}$-actions topological dynamical systems with $\mathcal {T}_i:=\{T_i^{\textbf {g}}:X_i{\rightarrow } X_i\}_{\textbf {g}\in \mathbb {Z}^{d}}$, where $d\in \mathbb {N}$ and $f\in C(X_{1})$. Assume that for each $1\leq i\leq k-1$, $(X_{i+1}, \mathcal {T}_{i+1})$ is a factor of $(X_{i}, \mathcal {T}_{i})$. In this paper, we introduce the weighted topological pressure $P^{\textbf {a}}(\mathcal {T}_{1},f)$ and weighted measure-theoretic entropy $h_{\mu }^{\textbf {a}}(\mathcal {T}_{1})$ for $\mathbb {Z}^{d}$-actions, and establish a weighted variational principle as
This result not only generalizes some well-known variational principles about topological pressure for compact or non-compact sets, but also improves the variational principle for weighted topological pressure in [16] from $\mathbb {Z}_{+}$-action topological dynamical systems to $\mathbb {Z}^{d}$-actions topological dynamical systems.
For a pseudo-Anosov flow $\varphi $ without perfect fits on a closed $3$-manifold, Agol–Guéritaud produce a veering triangulation $\tau $ on the manifold M obtained by deleting the singular orbits of $\varphi $. We show that $\tau $ can be realized in M so that its 2-skeleton is positively transverse to $\varphi $, and that the combinatorially defined flow graph $\Phi $ embedded in M uniformly codes the orbits of $\varphi $ in a precise sense. Together with these facts, we use a modified version of the veering polynomial, previously introduced by the authors, to compute the growth rates of the closed orbits of $\varphi $ after cutting M along certain transverse surfaces, thereby generalizing the work of McMullen in the fibered setting. These results are new even in the case where the transverse surface represents a class in the boundary of a fibered cone of M. Our work can be used to study the flow $\varphi $ on the original closed manifold. Applications include counting growth rates of closed orbits after cutting along closed transverse surfaces, defining a continuous, convex entropy function on the ‘positive’ cone in $H^1$ of the cut-open manifold, and answering a question of Leininger about the closure of the set of all stretch factors arising as monodromies within a single fibered cone of a $3$-manifold. This last application connects to the study of endperiodic automorphisms of infinite-type surfaces and the growth rates of their periodic points.
We find generalized conformal measures and equilibrium states for random dynamics generated by Ruelle expanding maps, under which the dynamics exhibits exponential decay of correlations. This extends results by Baladi [Correlation spectrum of quenched and annealed equilibrium states for random expanding maps. Comm. Math. Phys.186 (1997), 671–700] and Carvalho et al [Semigroup actions of expanding maps. J. Stat. Phys.116(1) (2017), 114–136], where the randomness is driven by an independent and identically distributed process and the phase space is assumed to be compact. We give applications in the context of weighted non-autonomous iterated function systems, free semigroup actions and introduce a boundary of equilibria for not necessarily free semigroup actions.
We derive upper and lower bounds for the Assouad and lower dimensions of self-affine measures in
$\mathbb {R}^d$
generated by diagonal matrices and satisfying suitable separation conditions. The upper and lower bounds always coincide for
$d=2,3$
, yielding precise explicit formulae for those dimensions. Moreover, there are easy-to-check conditions guaranteeing that the bounds coincide for
$d \geqslant 4$
. An interesting consequence of our results is that there can be a ‘dimension gap’ for such self-affine constructions, even in the plane. That is, we show that for some self-affine carpets of ‘Barański type’ the Assouad dimension of all associated self-affine measures strictly exceeds the Assouad dimension of the carpet by some fixed
$\delta>0$
depending only on the carpet. We also provide examples of self-affine carpets of ‘Barański type’ where there is no dimension gap and in fact the Assouad dimension of the carpet is equal to the Assouad dimension of a carefully chosen self-affine measure.
We construct one-dimensional foliations which are subfoliations of two-dimensional foliations in
$3$
-manifolds. The subfoliation is by quasigeodesics in each two-dimensional leaf, but it is not funnel: not all quasigeodesics share a common ideal point in most leaves.
We obtain conditions of uniform continuity for endomorphisms of free-abelian times free groups for the product metric defined by taking the prefix metric in each component and establish an equivalence between uniform continuity for this metric and the preservation of a coarse-median, a concept recently introduced by Fioravanti. Considering the extension of an endomorphism to the completion, we count the number of orbits for the action of the subgroup of fixed points (respectively periodic) points on the set of infinite fixed (respectively periodic) points. Finally, we study the dynamics of infinite points: for automorphisms and some endomorphisms, defined in a precise way, fitting a classification given by Delgado and Ventura, we prove that every infinite point is either periodic or wandering, which implies that the dynamics is asymptotically periodic.
For the family of double standard maps $f_{a,b}=2x+a+({b}/{\pi }) \sin 2\pi x \pmod {1}$ we investigate the structure of the space of parameters a when $b=1$ and when $b\in [0,1)$. In the first case the maps have a critical point, but for a set of parameters $E_1$ of positive Lebesgue measure there is an invariant absolutely continuous measure for $f_{a,1}$. In the second case there is an open non-empty set $E_b$ of parameters for which the map $f_{a,b}$ is expanding. We show that as $b\nearrow 1$, the set $E_b$ accumulates on many points of $E_1$ in a regular way from the measure point of view.
This is the first paper in a two-part series containing some results on dimension estimates for
$C^1$
iterated function systems and repellers. In this part, we prove that the upper box-counting dimension of the attractor of any
$C^1$
iterated function system (IFS) on
${\Bbb R}^d$
is bounded above by its singularity dimension, and the upper packing dimension of any ergodic invariant measure associated with this IFS is bounded above by its Lyapunov dimension. Similar results are obtained for the repellers for
$C^1$
expanding maps on Riemannian manifolds.
We present several applications of the weak specification property and certain topological Markov properties, recently introduced by Barbieri, García-Ramos, and Li [Markovian properties of continuous group actions: algebraic actions, entropy and the homoclinic group. Adv. Math.397 (2022), 52], and implied by the pseudo-orbit tracing property, for general expansive group actions on compact spaces. First we show that any expansive action of a countable amenable group on a compact metrizable space satisfying the weak specification and strong topological Markov properties satisfies the Moore property, that is, every surjective endomorphism of such dynamical system is pre-injective. This together with an earlier result of Li (where the strong topological Markov property is not needed) of the Myhill property [Garden of Eden and specification. Ergod. Th. & Dynam. Sys.39 (2019), 3075–3088], which we also re-prove here, establishes the Garden of Eden theorem for all expansive actions of countable amenable groups on compact metrizable spaces satisfying the weak specification and strong topological Markov properties. We hint how to easily generalize this result even for uncountable amenable groups and general compact, not necessarily metrizable, spaces. Second, we generalize the recent result of Cohen [The large scale geometry of strongly aperiodic subshifts of finite type. Adv. Math.308 (2017), 599–626] that any subshift of finite type of a finitely generated group having at least two ends has weakly periodic points. We show that every expansive action of such a group having a certain Markov topological property, again implied by the pseudo-orbit tracing property, has a weakly periodic point. If it has additionally the weak specification property, the set of such points is dense.
For any self-similar measure
$\mu $
in
$\mathbb {R}$
, we show that the distribution of
$\mu $
is controlled by products of non-negative matrices governed by a finite or countable graph depending only on the iterated function system of similarities (IFS). This generalizes the net interval construction of Feng from the equicontractive finite-type case. When the measure satisfies the weak separation condition, we prove that this directed graph has a unique attractor. This allows us to verify the multifractal formalism for restrictions of
$\mu $
to certain compact subsets of
$\mathbb {R}$
, determined by the directed graph. When the measure satisfies the generalized finite-type condition with respect to an open interval, the directed graph is finite and we prove that if the multifractal formalism fails at some
$q\in \mathbb {R}$
, there must be a cycle with no vertices in the attractor. As a direct application, we verify the complete multifractal formalism for an uncountable family of IFSs with exact overlaps and without logarithmically commensurable contraction ratios.
In 1991, Chicone and Jacobs showed the equivalence between the computation of the first-order Taylor developments of the Lyapunov constants and the developments of the first Melnikov function near a non-degenerate monodromic equilibrium point, in the study of limit cycles of small-amplitude bifurcating from a quadratic centre. We show that their proof is also valid for polynomial vector fields of any degree. This equivalence is used to provide a new lower bound for the local cyclicity of degree six polynomial vector fields, so $\mathcal {M}(6) \geq 44$. Moreover, we extend this equivalence to the piecewise polynomial class. Finally, we prove that $\mathcal {M}^{c}_{p}(4) \geq 43$ and $\mathcal {M}^{c}_{p}(5) \geq 65.$
We define positively expansive semigroups of linear operators on Banach spaces. We characterize these semigroups in terms of the point spectrum of the infinitesimal generator. In particular, we prove that a positively expansive semigroup is neither uniformly bounded nor equicontinuous. We apply our results to the Lasota equation.
In this paper, we show that each element in the convex hull of the rotation set of a compact invariant chain transitive set is realized by a Birkhoff solution, which is an improvement of the fundamental lemma of T. Zhou and W.-X. Qin [Pseudo solutions, rotation sets, and shadowing rotations for monotone recurrence relations. Math. Z.297 (2021), 1673–1692] in the study of rotation sets for monotone recurrence relations. We then investigate the properties of rotation sets assuming the system has zero topological entropy. The rotation set for a Birkhoff recurrence class is a singleton and the forward and backward rotation numbers are identical for each solution in the same Birkhoff recurrence class. We also show the continuity of rotation numbers on the set of non-wandering points. If the rotation set is upper-stable, then we show that each boundary point is a rational number, and we also obtain a result of bounded deviation.
This is the second of a series of two papers dealing with local limit theorems in relatively hyperbolic groups. In this second paper, we restrict our attention to non-spectrally degenerate random walks and we prove precise asymptotics of the probability $p_n(e,e)$ of going back to the origin at time $n$. We combine techniques adapted from thermodynamic formalism with the rough estimates of the Green function given by part I to show that $p_n(e,e)\sim CR^{-n}n^{-3/2}$, where $R$ is the inverse of the spectral radius of the random walk. This both generalizes results of Woess for free products and results of Gouëzel for hyperbolic groups.
A blender for a surface endomorphism is a hyperbolic basic set for which the union of the local unstable manifolds robustly contains an open set. Introduced by Bonatti and Díaz in the 1990s, blenders turned out to have many powerful applications to differentiable dynamics. In particular, a generalization in terms of jets, called parablenders, allowed Berger to prove the existence of generic families displaying robustly infinitely many sinks. In this paper we introduce analogous notions in a measurable setting. We define an almost blender as a hyperbolic basic set for which a prevalent perturbation has a local unstable set having positive Lebesgue measure. Almost parablenders are defined similarly in terms of jets. We study families of endomorphisms of
$\mathbb {R}^2$
leaving invariant the continuation of a hyperbolic basic set. When an inequality involving the entropy and the maximal contraction along stable manifolds is satisfied, we obtain an almost blender or parablender. This answers partially a conjecture of Berger, and complements previous works on the construction of blenders by Avila, Crovisier, and Wilkinson or by Moreira and Silva. The proof is based on thermodynamic formalism: following works of Mihailescu, Simon, Solomyak, and Urbański, we study families of skew-products and we give conditions under which these maps have limit sets of positive measure inside their fibers.
Let G be the group $\text {PAff}_{+}(\mathbb R/\mathbb Z)$ of piecewise affine circle homeomorphisms or the group ${\operatorname {\mathrm {Diff}}}^{{\kern1pt}\infty }(\mathbb R/\mathbb Z)$ of smooth circle diffeomorphisms. A constructive proof that all irrational rotations are distorted in G is given.
We consider the two-dimensional shrinking target problem in beta dynamical systems (for general
$\beta>1$
) with general errors of approximation. Let
$f, g$
be two positive continuous functions. For any
$x_0,y_0\in [0,1]$
, define the shrinking target set
where
$S_nf(x)=\sum _{j=0}^{n-1}f(T_\beta ^jx)$
is the Birkhoff sum. We calculate the Hausdorff dimension of this set and prove that it is the solution to some pressure function. This represents the first result of this kind for the higher-dimensional beta dynamical systems.
In this paper we study Zimmer's conjecture for $C^{1}$ actions of lattice subgroup of a higher-rank simple Lie group with finite center on compact manifolds. We show that when the rank of an uniform lattice is larger than the dimension of the manifold, then the action factors through a finite group. For lattices in ${\rm SL}(n, {{\mathbb {R}}})$, the dimensional bound is sharp.