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The need for a rigorous, yet practical, framework for characterization, modeling, and design of nonlinear electronic components at high frequencies has never been more urgent. The communications revolution is inexorably forcing active devices into more and more strongly nonlinear regimes of operation. This is a consequence of the relentless drive for more efficiency in order to save power, extend battery life, and minimize cooling. The price for efficiency is nonlinearity. Dealing with nonlinearity means that new measurement instrumentation and new modeling and design methodologies are required that go far beyond linear S-parameters. Fortunately, there is an overarching, interoperable paradigm combining all these pieces of the nonlinear puzzle together, seamlessly. The new paradigm is called X-parameters, and that is what this book is about.
The book is intended as a comprehensive introduction to X-parameters. It is aimed at a diverse audience with a wide range of backgrounds. This is quite a challenging undertaking! We are targeting professional microwave engineers, device modeling engineers and scientists, RF and microwave circuit designers, electronic and communications engineers, CAE professionals developing simulator algorithms, and microwave and RF professionals developing new high-speed instrumentation for a wide range of nonlinear characterization applications. The inherent interdisciplinary nature of X-parameters is the prime reason we seek to appeal to this broad audience. The practical solutions based on X-parameters deployed by industry over the past several years depend on contributions in all of these areas.