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  • Print publication year: 2004
  • Online publication date: August 2009

13 - Hypertension and stroke

from Part III - Disease prevention


There are various types of essential hypertension, as there is a variety of genetic patterns, including no patterns. The causes of hypertension include alcohol abuse, renal vascular and parenchymal disease, and certain endocrine states, including pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and primary aldosteronism. The primary treatment of hypertension definitely starts with lifestyle changes, especially in individuals with borderline hypertension. Concomitant diseases can make high blood pressure difficult to control. Strokes are one of the most important causes of disability and the second most common cause of death worldwide. Primary prevention focuses on reducing risk factors for stroke. The six most important factors are hypertension, atrial fibrillation, history of recent myocardial infarction, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and alcohol abuse. Primary and secondary prevention of stroke by lifestyle changes, control of hypertension and diabetes, and therapeutic use of aspirin, warfarin, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) will prevent further morbidity and mortality.
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