Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: January 2010

48 - CALCIUM, HYPERCALCEMIA, MAGNESIUM, AND BRAIN ISCHEMIA

from PART V: - SYSTEMIC DISORDERS THAT ALSO INVOLVE THE CEREBROVASCULAR SYSTEM

REFERENCES

Allen, G. S., Ahn, H. S., Preziosi, T. J., et al. 1983. Cerebral arterial spasm – a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. N Engl J Med, 308, 619–24.
Altura, B. T., Memon, Z. I., Zang, A., et al. 1997. Low levels of serum ionized magnesium are found in patients early after stroke which result in rapid elevation in cytosolic free calcium and spasm in cerebral vascular muscle cells. Neurosci Lett, 230, 37–40.
Amighi, J., Sabeti, S., Schlager, O., et al. 2004. Low serum magnesium predicts neurological events in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. Stroke, 35, 22–7.
Bauermeister, D. E., Jennings, E. R., Cruse, D. R., and Sedgwick, V. D. 1967. Hypercalcemia with seizures, a clinical paradox. JAMA, 201, 146–8.
Blaustein, M. P. 1988. Calcium transport and buffering in neurons. Trends Neurosci, 11, 438–43.
Bostrom, H., and Alveryd, A. 1972. Stroke in hyperparathyroidism. Acta Med Scand, 192, 299–308.
Choi, D. 1995. Calcium: still center-stage in hypoxic–ischemic neuronal death. Trends Neurosci, 18, 58–60.
Collignon, F. P., Friedman, J. A., Piepgras, D. G., et al. 2004. Serum magnesium levels as related to symptomatic vasospasm and outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care, 1, 441–8.
Ducros, A., Denier, C., Joutel, A., et al. 2001. The clinical spectrum of familial hemiplegic migraine associated with mutations in a neuronal calcium channel. N Engl J Med, 345, 17–24.
Feigin, V. L., Rinkel, G. J., Algra, A., et al. 1998. Calcium antagonists in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systemic review. Neurology, 50, 876–83.
Findlay, J. M., Macdonald, R. L., and Weir, B. K. 1991. Current concepts of pathophysiology and management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev, 3, 336–61.
Goadsby, P. G., Lipton, R. B., and Ferrari, M. D. 2002. Migraine – current understanding and treatment. N Engl J Med, 364, 257–70.
Goldstein, L. B. 2004. Neuroprotective therapy for acute ischaemic stroke: down, but not out. Lancet, 363, 414–5.
Gorelick, P. B. 2000. Neuroprotection in acute ischemic stroke: a tale of for whom the bell tolls? Lancet, 355, 1925–6.
Gorelick, P. B., and Caplan, L. R. 1985. Calcium, hypercalcemia, and stroke. Current concepts of cerebrovascular disease. Stroke, 20, 13–7.
Gorelick, P. B., and Ruland, S. 2004. IMAGES and FAST-MAG: magnesium for acute ischemic stroke. Lancet Neurol, 3, 330.
Guyton, A. C. 1986. Textbook of Medical Physiology, 7th edn. W. B. Saunders Company.
Haley, E. C., Kassell, N. F., Torner, J. C., et al. 1994a. A randomized controlled trial of high-dose intravenous nicardipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a report of the Cooperative Aneurysm Study. J Neurosurg, 78, 537–47.
Haley, E. C., Kassell, N. F., and Torner, J. C. 1994b. A randomized trial of nicardipine in subarachnoid hemorrhage: angiographic and transcranial Doppler results. A report of the Cooperative Aneurysm Study. J Neurosurg, 78, 548–53.
Helpern, J. A., Vande Linde, A. M., Welch, K. M., et al. 1993. Acute elevation and recovery of intracellular [Mg2+] following human focal cerebral ischemia. Neurology, 43, 1577–81.
Herishanu, U., Abramsky, O., and Lavy, S. 1970. Focal neurological manifestation in hypercalcemia. Eur Neurol, 4, 283–8.
Horn, J., and Limburg, M. 2001. Calcium antagonists for ischemic stroke: a systematic review. Stroke, 32, 570–6.
Huang, Q. F., Gebrewold, A., Altura, B. T., et al. 1990. Cocaine-induced cerebral vascular damage can be ameliorated by Mg2+ in rat brains. Neurosci Lett, 109, 113–6.
Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke (IMAGES) Study Investigators. 2004. Magnesium for acute stroke (intravenous magnesium in stroke trial: randomized controlled trial). Lancet, 363, 439–45.
Iso, H., Stampfer, M. J., Manson, J. E., et al. 1999. Prospective study of calcium, potassium and magnesium intake and the risk of stroke in women. Stroke, 30, 1772–9.
Katsamakis, G., Lukovits, T. G., and Gorelick, P. G. 1998. Calcific cerebral embolism in systemic calciphylaxis. Neurology, 51, 295–7.
Lee, J.-M., Zipfel, G. J., and Choi, D. W. 1999. The changing landscape of ischemic brain injury mechanisms. Nature, 399(6738 Suppl), A7–14.
Miller, R. J. 1991. The control of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis. Prog Neurobiol, 37, 255–85.
Mohr, J. P., Orgogozo, J. M., Harrison, M. J., et al. 1994. Meta-analysis of oral nimodipine trials in acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis, 4, 197–203.
Moskowitz, M. A., Bolay, H., and Dalkara, T. 2004. Deciphering migraine mechanisms: clues from familial hemiplegic migraine genotypes. Ann Neurol, 55, 276–80.
Muir, K. W. 2000. Therapeutic potential of magnesium in the treatment of acute stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 9, 257–67.
Orrenius, S., Burkitt, M. J., Kass, G. E. N., Dypbukt, J. M., and Nicotera, P. 1992. Calcium ions and oxidative cell injury. Ann Neurol, 32, S33–42.
Ram, Z., Sadeh, M., Shacked, I., et al. 1991. Magnesium sulfate reverses experimental delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Stroke, 22, 922–7.
Rinkel, G. J. E., Feigin, V. L., Algra, A., et al. 2005. Calcium antagonists in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke, 36, 1816–7.
Sato, Y., Kaji, M., Metoki, N., et al. 2003. Does compensatory hyperparathyroidism predispose to ischemic stroke? Neurology, 60, 626–9.
Saver, J. L., Kidwell C., Eckstein M., et al. 2004. Prehospital neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke: results of the Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium (FAST-MAG) pilot trial. Stroke, 35, 106–8.
Shanmugan, V., Chhablani, R., and Gorelick, P. B. 1997. Spontaneous calcific cerebral embolus. Neurology, 48, 538–9.
Shibuya, M., Suzuki, Y., Takayasu, M., et al. 1992. Effect of AT877 on cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial. J Neurosurg, 76, 571–7.
Siesjo, B. 1991. The role of calcium in cell death. In Neurodegenerative Disorders: Mechanisms and Prospects for Therapy, eds. D. Price, A. Aguayo, and H. Thoenen. Chichester, UK: Wiley, pp. 35–59.
Siesjo, B. K., and Bengtson, F. 1989. Calcium fluxes, calcium antagonists, and calcium related pathology in brain ischemia, hypoglycemia and spreading depression: a unifying hypothesis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 9, 127–40.
Silberstein, S. D. 2004. Migraine. Lancet, 363, 381–91.
Sloan, M. A. 1995. Cerebral vasoconstriction: physiology, pathophysiology and occurrence in selected cerebrovascular disorders. In Brain Ischemia: Basic Concepts and Their Clinical Relevance (Clinical Medicine and the Nervous System Series), ed. L. R. Caplan. London: Springer-Verlag, pp. 151–72.
Sloan, M. A., Kittner, S. J., and Price, T. R. 1998. Stroke and illicit drug use. In Cerebrovascular Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management,Volume II, eds. M. D. Ginsburg, J. Bogousslavsky. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell Science, Inc., pp. 1589–609.
Streeto, J. M. 1969. Acute hypercalcemia simulating basilar artery insufficiency. N Engl J Med, 280, 427–9.
Tymianski, M. 1996. Cytosolic calcium concentrations and cell death in vitro. Adv Neurol, 71, 85–105.
van den Bergh, W. M., Algra, A., van der Sprenkel, J. W. B., et al. 2003. Hypomagnesemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery, 52, 276–82.
van den Bergh, W. M., on behalf of the MASH Study Group. 2005. Magnesium sulfate in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke, 36, 1011–5.
Walker, G. L., Williamson, P. M., Ravich, R. M. B., and Roche, J. 1980. Hypercalcemia associated with cerebral vasospasm causing infarction. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 43, 464–7.
Wong, G. K. C., Chan, M. T. V., Boet, M., Poon, W. S., and Gin, T. 2006. Intravenous magnesium sulfate after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective randomized pilot study. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol, 18, 142–8.
Yarnell, P., and Caplan, L. R. 1986. Basilar artery narrowing and hyperparathyroidism: illustrative case. Stroke, 17, 1022–4.