Committee on Trauma Research. Injury in America. A Continuing Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1985.
Medical expenditures attributable to injuries – United States, 2000. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53: 1–4., , , .
Cost of Injury in the United States. A Report to Congress. 1989., , , et al.
Advanced Trauma Life Support, 6th edition. Chicago, IL: American College of Surgeons, 1997.
Posttraumatic inflammatory response, secondary operations, and late multiple organ failure. J Trauma 1996; 40(4):624–30., , , , , ,
Early versus delayed stabilization of femoral fractures. A prospective randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1989; 71(3):336–40., , ,
Adult respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, and mortality following thoracic injury and a femoral fracture treated either with intramedullary nailing with reaming or with a plate. A comparative study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997; 79(6):799–809., , , , , , ,
Delayed surgical fixation of femur fractures is a risk factor for pulmonary failure independent of thoracic trauma. J Trauma 1994; 37(4):667–72., ,
Incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome in patients with multiple musculoskeletal injuries: Effect of early operative stabilization of fractures. J. Trauma 1985; 25(5):375–84., ,
Improved outcome with early fixation of skeletally unstable pelvic fractures. J Trauma 1991; 31(1):28–31., , , ,
Complications associated with internal fixation of high-energy bicondylar tibial plateau fractures utilizing a two-incision technique. J Orthop Trauma 2004; 18: 649–57., , , ,
A staged protocol for soft tissue management in the treatment of complex pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma 1999; 13: 78–84., , ,
Early osteosynthesis and prophylactic mechanical ventilation in the multitrauma patient. J Trauma 1982; 22: 895–903., , , , .
Pulmonary and cardiovascular consequences of immediate fixation or conservative management of long-bone fractures. Arch Surg 1986; 21(9):992–9., , , , , , ,
Risk factors for respiratory failure following operative stabilization of thoracic and lumbar spine fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006; 88(5):997–1005., , , , , , ,
Blunt multiple trauma (ISS 36), femur traction, and the pulmonary failure-septic state. Ann Surg 1985; 202: 283–95., , , , , ,
The impact of the quantity of skeletal injury on mortality and pulmonary morbidity. J Trauma 1997; 43(6):916–21., , , ,
Is the timing of fracture fixation important for the patient with multiple trauma?Ann Surg. 1995; 222(4):470–8., , , , ,
Base deficit as a guide to volume resuscitation. J Trauma 1988; 28(10):1464–7., , ,
Wound inflammatory mediators and multisystem organ failure. Prog Clin Biol Res 1987; 236A: 525–37.
Major secondary surgery in blunt trauma patients and perioperative cytokine liberation: Determination of the relevance of biochemical markers. J Trauma 2001; 50: 989–1000., , , , , , , ,
Biochemical changes after trauma and skeletal surgery of the lower extremity: Quantification of the operative burden. J Orthop Trauma 2004; 18(8):S24–31., , , , , ,
Indicators of the posttraumatic inflammatory response correlate with organ failure in patients with multiple injuries. J Trauma 1997; 42(3):446–54., , , , , , , ,
Impact of intramedullary instrumentation versus damage control for femoral fractures on immunoinflammatory parameters: Prospective randomized analysis by the EPOFF study group. J Trauma 2004; 55: 7–13., , , , , , , , ,
External fixation as a bridge to intramedullary nailing for patients with multiple injuries and with femur fractures: Damage control orthopedics. J Trauma 2000; 48: 613–23., , , et al.
Changes in the management of femoral fractures in polytrauma patients: From early total care to damage control orthopedic surgery. J Trauma 2002; 53: 452–61., , , , , , ,
Evaluation of criteria for temporary external fixation in risk-adapted damage control orthopedic surgery of femur shaft fractures in multiple trauma patients: “Evidence-based medicine” versus “Reality” in the trauma registry of the German Trauma Society. J Trauma 2005; 59(6):1375–95., , , , , , , , and the Polytrauma Study Group of the German Trauma Society.
Pelvic ring disruptions: Effective classification system and treatment protocols. J Trauma 1990; 30(7):848–56., , , , , , ,
Primary operative fixation of long bone fractures in patients with multiple injuries. J Trauma 1977; 17: 111–21., , , , ,
Pelvic fracture in multiple trauma: Classification by mechanism is key to pattern of organ injury, resuscitative requirements, and outcome. J Trauma 1989; 29(7):981–1000., , , , , , , ,
Acute pelvic fractures: (part) I. Causation and classification. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1996; 4(3):143–51.
Pelvic ring fractures: Should they be fixed?J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988; 70(1):1–12.
Innominosacral dissociation: mechanism of injury as a predictor of resuscitation requirements, morbidity, and mortality. J Orthop Trauma 2006; 20(1 Suppl):S57–63., ,
Ligamentous contributions to pelvic stability. Orthopaedics 1995; 18(3): 271–4., , ,
A rational approach to pelvic trauma. Resuscitation and early definitive stabilization. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1995; (318):61–74., ,
Sacral fractures: An important problem. Retrospective analysis of 236 cases. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1988; 227: 67–81., ,
Neurologic injury and patterns of sacral fractures. J Neurosurg 1990; 72(6):889–93., ,
Circumferential pelvic antishock sheeting: A temporary resuscitation aid. J Orthop Trauma 2006; (20):S3–6., , ,
Angiographic findings in pelvic fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1996 Aug;(329):60–7., ,
Early results of percutaneous iliosacral screws placed with the patient in the supine position. J Orthop Trauma 1995; 9(3):207–14., , ,
Open fractures of the pelvis. Review of 43 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991; 73(2): 325–9., , .
Open pelvic fractures. A multicenter retrospective analysis. Orthop Clin N Am 1997; 28(3):345–50., , , , ,
Pelvic open fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1980; (151):41–5.
Open pelvic fractures. J Trauma 1982; 22(7):533–8., , ,
Open pelvic fracture: A lethal injury. J Trauma 1978; 18(3):184–7., , , ,
Is colostomy always necessary in the treatment of open pelvic fractures?J Trauma 1998; 45(2): 371–3., ,
Open pelvic fracture and fecal diversion. Arch Surg 1998; 133(3): 281–6., , , ,
Mortality in patients with bilateral femoral fractures. J Orthop Trauma 1998; 12(5):315–9., , , ,
Mortality after reamed intramedullary nailing of bilateral femur fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003; (415):272–8., , , , ,
Intramedullary nailing following external fixation in femoral and tibial shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma 2005; 19: 140–4., , , ,
A prospective evaluation of the clinical utility of the lower-extremity injury-severity scores. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83-A(1):3–14., , , , , , , , , , , .
Objective criteria accurately predict amputation following lower extremity trauma. J Trauma 1990; 30(5):568–72., , , ,
Open tibial fractures with associated vascular injuries: Prognosis for limb salvage. J Trauma 1985; 25(3):203–8., , ,
Vascular injuries associated with dislocation of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1977; 59(2):236–9., .
Examination of the patient with a knee dislocation. The case for selective arteriography. Arch Surg 1992; 127(9):1056–62., , , , , , ,
Knee dislocation: Initial assessment and implications for treatment. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11(7):525–9., , .
The value of the ankle-brachial index for diagnosing arterial injury after knee dislocation: A prospective study. J Trauma 2004; 56(6):1261–5., ,
Compartment monitoring in tibial fractures. The pressure threshold for decompression. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1996; 78(1):99–104.,
Prevention of infection in the treatment of one thousand and twenty-five open fractures of long bones: Retrospective and prospective analyses. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976; 58(4):453–8., .
Problems in the management of type III (severe) open fractures: A new classification of type III open fractures. J Trauma 1984; 24(8):742–6., , .
Once daily, high dose versus divided, low dose gentamicin for open fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1999; (366):197–204., , , , , ,
Management of open fracture wounds. Instr Course Lect 1987; 36: 367–9.
Immediate internal fixation of open ankle fractures. Report of thirty-eight cases treated with a standard protocol. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984; 66(9): 1349–56., ,
Immediate internal fixation of open fractures of the diaphysis of the forearm. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986; 68(7):1008–17., , , ,
Injury of the sciatic nerve associated with acetabular fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993; 75(8):1157–66., , ,
Hip dislocation: Current treatment regimens J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1997; 5(1):27–36.,
Fractures of the neck of the talus. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1970; 52(5):991–1002.
Fracture-dislocation of the hip: An end result study. J Bone Joint Surg 1954; 36A: 315–42.,
Posterior hip dislocations: A cadaveric angiographic study. J Orthop Trauma 1996; 10(7):447–54., , , , , ,
Comparisons of early and delayed fixation of subcapital hip fractures in patients sixty years of age or less. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002; 84-A(9):605–12., , , , ,
Fractures of the femoral neck in patients between the ages of twelve and forty-nine years. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984; 66(6):837–46., ,
Femur fractures in chest-injured patients: Is reaming contraindicated?J Orthop Trauma 1998; 12(3):164–8., ,
Practice Management Guidelines Work Group. Practice management guidelines for the optimal timing of long-bone fractures stabilization in polytrauma patients: The EAST Practice Management Guidelines work group. J Trauma 2001; 50: 958–67., , , , , , , , , , and EAST
The fat embolism syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1974; 56B(3):408–16.,
Fat embolism and the fat embolism syndrome. A double-blind therapeutic study. J. Bone Joint Surg Br 1987; 69(1):128–31., , , ,
Treatment of femur fracture with associated head injury. J Orthop Trauma 1998; 12(1):38–45., , , ,
Operative management of lower extremity fractures in patients with head injuries. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003; 407: 187–98., , , , ,
Lower extremity fracture fixation in head-injured patients. J. Trauma 1992; 32(5): 654–9., , ,
Postoperative complications and mortality associated with operative delay in older patients who have a fracture of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995; 77(10):1551–6., , , ,
Hip fractures in the elderly: predictors of one ear mortality. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11(3):162–5., , ,
Functional outcomes and mortality vary among different types of hip fractures: A function of patient characteristics. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004; 425: 64–71., , , ,
Gender differences in patients with hip fracture: A greater risk of morbidity and mortality in men. J Orthop Trauma 2005; 19(1): 29–35., , , , .
Mortality risk after hip fracture. J Orthop Trauma 2003; 17(1): 53–6., , .
Preoperative status and risk of complications in patients with hip fracture. J Gen Intern Med 2006; 21(3):219–25., , , , , , , , ,
Predictors of functional recovery after hip fracture. Effect of general versus regional anesthesia. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1998; 348: 37–41., , ,
Effects of trauma on immune cell function: Impairment of intracellular calcium signaling. Shock 1994; 2: 23–8., , ,
Non-invasive vascular tests reliably exclude occult arterial trauma in injured extremities. J Trauma 1991; 31(4):515–9., ,
Simple anterior pelvic external fixation. J Trauma 2000; 49(6):989–94., , ,