Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 5 - Establishing vascular access in the trauma patient

from Section 1 - Initial management of the trauma patient

References

1. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the Use of Ultrasound Locating Devices for Placing Central Venous Catheters. Technology Appraisal 49. London: NICE, 2002. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/TA49 (accessed July 2014).
2. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Making Health Care Safer II: An Updated Critical Analysis of the Evidence for Patient Safety Practices. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/evidence-based-reports/ptsafetyuptp.html (accessed July 2014).
3. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for central venous access: a report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Central Venous Access. Anesthesiology 2012; 116; 539–73.
4. Weiner MM, Geldard P, Mittnacht A. Ultrasound-guided vascular access: a comprehensive review. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013; 27; 345–60.
5. Troianos C, Hartman G, Glas K, et al. Guidelines for performing ultrasound guided vascular cannulation: recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg 2012; 114; 46–72.
6. American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. ATLS: Advanced Trauma Life Support For Doctors, 7th edition. Chicago, IL: ACS, 2004.
7. Westfall MD, Price KR, Lambert M, et al. Intravenous access in the critically ill trauma patient: a multicentered, prospective, randomized trial of saphenous cutdown and percutaneous femoral access. Ann Emerg Med 1994; 23; 541–5.
8. Revell M, Porter K, Greaves I. Fluid resuscitation in prehospital trauma care: a consensus view. Emerg Med J 2002; 19; 494–8.
9. Comunale, M. A laboratory evaluation of the level 1 rapid infuser (H1025) and the Belmont instrument fluid management system (FMS 2000) for rapid transfusion. Anesth Analg 2003; 97; 1064–9.
10. de la Roche M, Gauthier L; Rapid transfusion of packed red blood cells: effect of dilution, pressure and catheter size. Ann Emerg Med 1993; 22; 1551–5.
11. Keyes L, Frazee B, Snoey E, Simon B, Christy D. Ultrasound-guided brachial and basilic vein cannulation in the emergency department patients with difficult intravenous access. Ann Emerg Med 1999; 34; 711–14.
12. Brannam L, Blaivas M, Lyon M, Flake M. Emergency nurses’ utilization of ultrasound guidance for placement of peripheral intravenous lines in difficult-access patients. Acad Emerg Med 2004; 11; 1361–3.
13. Costantino TG, Fojtik JP. Success rate of peripheral IV catheter insertion by emergency physicians using ultrasound guidance. Acad Emerg Med 2003; 10; 487a.
14. Joing S, Strote S, Caroon L, et al. Videos in clinical medicine. Ultrasound-guided peripheral IV placement. N Engl J Med 2012; 366 (25): e38. doi: 10.1056/NEJMvcm1005951.
15. Abraham E, Shapiro M, Podolsky S. Central venous catheterization in the emergency setting. Crit Care Med 1983; 11; 515–17.
16. Pappas P., Brathwaite CE, Ross SE. Emergency central venous catheterization during resuscitation of trauma patients. Am Surg 1992; 58; 108–11.
17. Scalea TM, Sinert R, Duncan AO, et al. Percutaneous central venous access for resuscitation in trauma. Acad Emerg Med 1994; 1; 525–31.
18. Duffy BJ. The clinical use of polyethylene tubing for intravenous therapy. Ann Surg 1949; 130: 929.
19. Mangiante EC, Hoots AV, Fabian TC. The percutaneous common femoral vein catheter for volume replacement in critically injured patients. J Trauma 1988; 28; 1644–9.
20. Emerman CL, Bellon EM, Lukens TW, May TE, Effron D. A prospective study of femoral versus subclavian vein catheterization during cardiac arrest. Annals Emerg Med 1990; 19; 26–30.
21. Swanson RS, Uhlig, PN, Gross PL, McCabe CJ. Emergency intravenous access through the femoral vein. Ann Emerg Med 1984; 13; 244–7.
22. Durbec O, Viviand X, Potie F, et al. A prospective evaluation of the use of femoral venous catheters in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med 1997; 25; 1986–9.
23. Joynt GM, Kew J, Gomersall CD, Leung VY, Liu EK. Deep venous thrombosis caused by femoral venous catheters in critically ill adult patients. Chest 2000; 117; 178–83.
24. Merrer J, De Jonghe B, Golliot F, et al. Complications of femoral and subclavian venous catheterization in critically ill patients; JAMA 2001; 286: 700–7.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America. mm WR Recomm Rep 2002; 51 (RR-16): 1–45.
26. O’Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Centers for Disease Control and prevention. mmWR Recomm Rep 2002; 51 (RR-10): 1–29.
27. Berenholtz SM, Pronovost PJ, Lipsett PA, et al. Eliminating catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2004; 32; 2014–20.
28. McGee DC, Gould MK. Preventing complications of central venous catheterization. N Engl J Med 2003; 348; 1123–33.
29. Latto IP, Ng WS, Jones PL, Jenkins BJ. Percutaneous Central Venous and Arterial Catheterisation, 3rd edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2000. Chapter 9: The femoral vein; pp. 211–21.
30. Polderman KH, Girbes AJ. Central venous catheter use. Part 1: mechanical complications. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28; 1–17.
31. Butterworth JF. Atlas of Procedures in Anesthesia and Critical Care. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1992. Chapter 15: Central venous cannulation; pp. 95–9.
32. Jobes DR, Schwartz AJ, Greenhow DE, et al. Safer jugular vein cannulation: Recognition of arterial puncture and preferential use of the external jugular route. Anesthesiology 1983; 59; 353–5.
33. Augoustides JG, Diaz D, Weiner J, Clarke C, Jobes DR. Current practice of internal jugular venous cannulation in a university anesthesia department: influence of operator experience on success of cannulation and arterial injury. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002; 16; 567–71.
34. Seldinger SI. Catheter replacement of the needle in percutaneous arteriography: a new technique. Acta Radiol 1953; 39; 368–76.
35. Scott WL, Collier P. The vessel dilator for central venous catheter placement: forerunner for success or vascular misadventure? Intensive Care Med 2001; 16: 263–9.
36. Oropello JM, Leibowitz AB, Manasia A, Del Guidice R, Benjamin E. Dilator-associated complications of central vein catheter insertion: possible mechanisms of injury and suggestions for prevention; J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1996; 10: 634–7.
37. Lobato EB, Gravenstein N, Paige GB. Dilator-associated complications of central vein catheter insertion: possible mechanisms of injury and suggestions for prevention. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1997; 11; 539–40.
38. Bailey PL, Whitaker EE, Palmer LS, Glance LG. The accuracy of the central landmark used for central venous catheterization of the internal jugular vein. Anesth Analg 2006; 102; 1327–32.
39. Steele R, Irvin C. Central line mechanical complication rate in emergency medicine patients. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8; 204–7.
40. Eisen LA, Narasimhan M, Berger JS, et al. Mechanical complications of central venous catheters. J Intensive Care Med 2006; 21; 40–6.
41. Aoki H, Mizobe T, Nozuchi S, Hatanaka T, Tanaka Y. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of internal jugular vein catheterization. Anesth Analg 1992; 75; 296–8.
42. Maddali MM, Badur RS, Rajakumar MC, Valliattu J. Pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery: a delayed iatrogenic complication after internal jugular vein catheterization. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20; 853–5.
43. Feller-Kopman D. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular access: a proposed standardized approach and implications for training and practice. Chest 2007; 132; 302–9.
44. Balls A, Lovecchio F, Kroeger A, et al. Ultrasound guidance for central venous catheter placement: results from the central line emergency access registry database. Am J Emerg Med 2010; 28; 561–7.
45. Fortune JB, Feustel P. Effect of patient position on size and location of the subclavian vein for percutaneous puncture. Arch Surg 2003; 138; 996–1000.
46. Aubaniac R. L’injection intraveineuse sous-claviculaire: avantages et technique. Presse Med 1952; 60; 1456.
47. Grant JP. Anatomy and physiology of venous system vascular access: implications. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2006; 30: S7–12.
48. Defalque RJ. Subclavian venipunture: a review. Anesth Analg Curr Res 1968; 47; 677–82.
49. Ruesch S, Walder B, Tramer MR. Complications of central venous catheters: internal jugular versus subclavian access – a systematic review. Crit Care Med 2002; 30; 454–9.
50. Lorente L, Henry C, Martin MM, Jimenez A, Mora ML. Central venous catheter-related infection in a prospective and observational study of 2595 catheters. Crit Care 2005; 9: R631–5.
51. Nagashima G, Kikuchi T, Tsuyuzaki H, et al. To reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections: is the subclavian route better than the jugular route for central venous catheterization? J Infect Chemother 2006; 12: 363–5.
52. Tan BK, Hong SW, Huang MH, Lee ST. Anatomic basis of safe percutaneous subclavian venous catheterization. J Trauma 1999: 48: 82–6.
53. Agee KR, Balk RA. Central venous catheterization in the critically ill patient. Crit Care Clin 1992; 8; 677–86.
54. Ferguson M, Max M, Marshall W. Emergency department infraclavicular sublavian vein catherization in patients with multiple injuries and burns. South Med J 1988; 81; 433–5.
55. Timsit JF. Central venous access in intensive care unit patients: Is the subclavian vein the royal route? Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 1006–8.
56. Mansfield PF, Hohn DC, Fornage BD, Gregurich MA, Ota DM. Complications and failures of subclavian vein catheterization. N Engl J Med 1994; 331; 1735–8.
57. Sznejder JI, Zveibel FR, Bitterman H, Weiner P, Bursztein S. Central vein catheterization: failure and complications by 3 percutaneous approaches. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146; 259–61.
58. Thompson EC, Calver LE. Safe subclavian vein cannulation. Am Surg 2005; 71; 180–3.
59. Moran SG, Peoples JB. The deltopectoral triangle as a landmark for percutaneous infraclavicular cannulation of the subclavian vein. Angiology 1993; 44; 683–6.
60. von Goedecke A, Keller C, Moriggle B, et al. An anatomic landmark to simplify subclavian vein cannulation: the “deltoid tuberosity.” Anesth Analg 2005; 100: 623–8.
61. Porzionato A, Montisci M, Manani G. Brachial plexus injury following subclavian vein catheterization: a case report. J Clin Anesth 2003; 15; 582–6.
62. Land RE. The relationship of the left subclavian vein to the clavicle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1972; 63; 564–8.
63. Land RE. Anatomic relationships of the right subclavian vein. Arch Surg 1971; 102; 178–80.
64. Lamperti M, Bodenham A, Pittiruti M, et al. International evidence-based recommendations on ultrasound-guided vascular access. Intensive Care Med, 2012; 38: 1105–17.
65. Fragou M, Gravvanis A, Dimitriou V, et al. Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation versus the landmark method in critical care patients: a prospective randomized study. Crit Care Med 2011; 39; 1607–12.
66. Tan BK, Wong CH, Ng R, Huang M, Lee ST. A modified technique of percutaneous subclavian venous catheterization in the oedematous burned patient. Burns 2005; 31; 505–9.
67. Gordon LH, Brown M, Brown OW, Brown EM. Alternative sites for continuous arterial monitoring. South Med J 1984; 77; 1498–500.
68. Cohn JN. Blood pressure measurement in shock: mechanism of inaccuracy in ausculatory and palpatory methods. JAMA 1967; 199; 118–22.
69. Gardner RM. Direct blood pressure measurement dynamic response requirements. Anesthesiology 1981; 54; 227–36.
70. Dahl MR, Smead WL, McSweeney TD. Radial artery cannulation: a comparision of 15.2- and 4.45cm catheters. J Clin Monit 1992; 8; 193–7.
71. Kim JM, Arakawa K, Bliss J. Arterial cannulation: factors in the development of occlusion. Anesth Analg 1975; 54; 836–41.
72. Shiloh AL, Savel RH, Paulin LM, Eisen LA. Ultrasound-guided catheterizationof the radial artery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chest 2011; 139; 524–9.
73. Gratrix AP, Atkinson JD, Bodenham AR. Cannulation of the impalpable section of radial artery: preliminary clinical and ultrasound observations. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2009; 26; 887–9.
74. Slogoff S, Keats AS, Arlund C. On the safety of radial artery cannulation. Anesthesiology 1983; 59; 42–7.
75. Scheer BV, Perel A, Pfeiffer UJ. Clinical review: complications and risk factors of peripheral arterial catheters used for haemodynamic monitoring in anaethesia and intensive care medicine. Crit Care 2002; 6; 199–204.
76. Fowler R, Gallagher JV, Isaacs SM, et al. The role of intraosseous vascular access in the out-of-hospital environment (Resource document to NAEMSP position statement). Prehosp Emerg Care 2007; 11; 63–6.
77. Soderstrom CA, Wasserman DH, Dunham CM, Caplan ES, Cowley RA. Superiority of the femoral artery for monitoring: a prospective study. Am J Surg 1982; 144; 309–12.
78. Bedford RF. Wrist circumference predicts the risk of radial-arterial occlusion after cannulation. Anesthesiology 1978; 48; 377–8.
79. Hoencamp R, Ulrich C, Verschuren AJ, van Baalan JM. Prospective comparative study on the hemodynamic and functional consequences of arterial monitoring catheters in intensive care patients on the short and long term. J Crit Care 2006; 21; 193–6.
80. Green JA, Tonkin MA. Ischemia of the hand in infants following radial or ulnar artery catheterization. Hand Surg 1999; 4; 151–7.
81. Murphy GS, Szokol JW, Marymont JH, Avram MJ, Vender JS. Retrograde air embolization during routine radial artery catheter flushing in adult cardiac surgical patients: an ultrasound study. Anesthesiology 2004; 101; 614–19.
82. Brzezinski M, Luisetti T, London MJ. Radial artery cannulation: a comprehensive review of recent anatomic and physiologic investigations. Anesth Analg 2009; 109; 1763–81.
83. Bhananker SM, Liau DW, Kooner PK, et al. Liability related to peripheral venous and arterial catheterization: a closed claims analysis. Anesth Analg 2009; 109; 124–9.
84. Gurman GM, Kriemerman S. Cannulation of big arteries in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1985; 13; 217–20.
85. Martin C, Saux P, Papazain L, Goutin F. Long-term arterial cannulation in ICU patients using the radial artery or dorsalis pedis artery. Chest 2001; 119; 901–6.
86. Youngberg J, Miller ED. Evaluation of percutaneous cannulations of the dorsalis pedis artery. Anesthesiology 1976; 44; 80–3.
87. Chopra PS, Kroncke GM, Dacumos GC, Young WP, Kahn DR. Use of the ulnar artery for monitoring arterial blood pressures and blood gases. Ann Thorac Surg 1973; 15; 541–3.
88. Frezza EE, Mezghebe H. Indications and complications of arterial catheter use in surgical or medical intensive care units: analysis of 4932 patients. Amer Surg 1998; 64; 127–31.
89. Kahler AC, Mirza FZ. Alternative arterial catheterization using the ulnar artery in critically ill pediatric patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2002; 3; 370–4.
90. Lanspa TJ, Williams MA, Heirigs RL. Effectiveness of ulnar artery catheterization after failed attempt to cannulate a radial artery. Am J Cardiol 2005; 95; 1529–30.
91. Aptecar E, Pernes JM, Chabane-Chaouch M, et al. Transulnar versus transradial artery approach for coronary angioplasty: the PCVI-CUBA study. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2006; 67; 711–20.
92. Okeson GC, Wulbrecht PH. The safety of brachial artery puncture for arterial blood sampling. Chest 1998; 114; 748–51.
93. Bryan-Brown CW, Kwun KB, Lumb PD, Pia RLG, Azer S. The axillary artery catheter. Heart Lung 1983; 12; 492–7.
94. Muralidhar K. Complications of femoral artery pressure monitoring. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1998; 12; 128–9.
95. Lanspa TJ, Reyes AP, Oldemeyer JB, Williams MA. Ulnar artery catheterization with occlusion of corresponding radial artery. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2004; 61; 211–13.
96. Hazinski MF, Nadkarni VM, Hickey RW, et al. 2005 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Part 7.2: Management of cardiac arrest. Circulation 2005; 112 (Suppl I): IV-58–66.
97. Schindler E, Schears G, Hall S, Yamamoto T. Ultrasound for vascular access in pediatric patients. Paediatr Anesth 2012; 22; 1002–7.
98. Day MW. Using a sternal intraosseous device in adults. Nursing 1999; 29 (12): 22–3.
99. Waisman M, Waisman D. Bone marrow infusion in adults. J Trauma 1997; 42; 288–93.
100. Frascone R, Kaye K, Dries D, Solem L. Successful placement of an adult sternal intraosseous line through burned skin. J Burn Care Rehabil 2003; 24; 306–8.
101. Brown C, Wiklund L, Bar-Joseph G, et al. Future directions for resuscitation research. IV. Innovative advanced life support pharmacology. Resuscitation 1996; 33; 163–77.
102. Calkins MD, Fitzgerald G, Bentley TB, Burris D. Intraosseous infusion devices: a comparison for potential use in special operations. J Trauma 2000; 48; 1068–74.
103. Day MW. Act FASTwith intraosseous infusion. Nursing 2003; 33 (11): 50–2.