Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: January 2010

1 - Hepatitis viruses

from Section 1 - Agents



Transmission of hepatitis through blood transfusion was first reported in 1943 (Beeson, 1943; Morgan and Williamson, 1943). Hepatitis transmitted through faecal-oral mechanisms was termed hepatitis A (‘epidemic hepatitis’), while hepatitis transmitted through blood and its derivatives (‘serum hepatitis’) was termed hepatitis B. These terms were formally adopted by the World Health Organization in the 1970s (Dienstag, 2002).

Prevention of the transmission of hepatitis by blood transfusions began with donor screening through the use of a donor questionnaire, primarily for a history of hepatitis, commonly referred to as ‘yellow jaundice’. Laboratory screening for hepatitis B virus began in 1969, with the testing of blood donors for what eventually became known as the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Soon after regular testing of donor blood for HBsAg was initiated and tests for antibody to the hepatitis A virus became available, it became apparent that the majority of cases of transfusion-transmitted viral hepatitis were not related to hepatitis A or hepatitis B. The then undefined virus, named non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis virus, was believed to be the cause of a large number of transfusion-related infections. In an effort to reduce the number of transfusion-transmitted NANB viral hepatitis infections, ‘surrogate’ or substitute testing of donor blood was evaluated in the 1970s, initially in the USA.

In 1981, an association between elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in blood donors and transfusion-transmitted NANB hepatitis in recipients was reported (Aach et al., 1981; Alter et al., 1981).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Aach, R. D., Lander, J. J., Sherman, L. A., et al. (1978) Transfusion-transmitted viruses: interim analysis of hepatitis among transfused and non-transfused patients. In Viral Hepatitis: a Contemporary Assessment of Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Prevention, eds Vyas, G. N., Cohen, S. N. and Schmid, R., pp. 383–96. Philadelphia, Franklin Institute Press.
Aach, R. D., Szmuness, W., Mosley, J. W., et al. (1981) Serum alanine aminotransferase of donors in relation to the risk of non-A, non-B hepatitis in recipients: the transfusion-transmitted viruses study. New Engl J Med, 304, 989–94.
Aggarwal, R. (2004) Hepatitis E: is it a blood-borne pathogen? J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 19, 729–31.
Alter, H. J. and Houghton, M. (2000) Hepatitis C virus and eliminating post-transfusion hepatitis. Nature Medicine, 6, 1082–6.
Alter, H. J., Purcell, R. H., Holland, P. V., et al. (1981) Donor transaminase and recipient hepatitis. Impact on blood transfusion services. JAMA, 246, 630–4.
Anderson, D. A. and Shrestha, I. L. (2002) Hepatitis E virus. In Clinical Virology, eds Richman, D. D., Whitley, R. J. and Hayden, F. G., pp. 1061–74. Washington DC, ASM Press.
Andre, F. (2000) Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Vaccine, 18, S20–S22.
Aoyagi, K., Ohue, C., Iida, K., et al. (1999) Development of a simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay for hepatitic C virus core antigen. J Clin Microbiol, 37, 1802–8.
Azimi, P. H., Roberto, P. R., Guralnik, J., et al. (1986) Transfusion acquired hepatitis A in a premature infant with secondary nosocomial spread in an intensive care nursery. Am J Dis Child, 140, 23–7.
Balayan, M. S. (1997) Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection. J Viral Hepat, 4, 155–65.
Barbara, J. A., Howell, D. R., Briggs, M., et al. (1982) Post-transfusion hepatitis A. Lancet, 1, 738 (letter).
Barker, L. F. and Murray, R. (1972) Relationship of virus dose to incubation time of clinical hepatitis and time of appearance of hepatitis-associated antigen. Am J Med Sci, 263, 27–33.
Barker, L. F., Shulman, N. R., Murray, R., et al. (1970) Transmission of serum hepatitis. JAMA, 211, 1509–12.
Beasley, R. P. (1988) Hepatitis B virus. The major etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer, 61, 1942–56.
Beeson, P. B. (1943) Jaundice occurring one to four months after transfusion of blood or plasma: report of seven cases. JAMA, 121, 1332–4.
Betlach, B., Paglieroni, T. and Holland, P. V. (2000) Delayed anti-HAV response to hepatitis A vaccine. Antivir Ther, 5(S1), A13.
Biswas, R., Tabor, E., Hsia, C. C., et al. (2003) Comparative sensitivity of HBV nucleic acid tests and HBsAg assays for detection of acute HBV infections. Transfusion, 43, 788–98.
Blumberg, B. S., Alter, H. J., Visnich, S. (1965) A ‘new’ antigen in leukemia sera. JAMA, 191, 541–6.
Bouvier-Alias, M., Patel, K., Dahari, H., et al. (2002) Clinical utility of total HCV core antigen quantification: a new indirect marker of HCV replication. Hepatology, 36, 211–8.
Boxall, E., Herborn, A., Kochethu, G., et al. (2006) Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E in a ‘nonhyperendemic’ country. Transfus Med, 16, 79–83.
Brojer, E. (2005) Implementation of donor screening for infectious agents transmitted by blood by nucleic acid technology in Poland. Vox Sang, 89, 267–8.
Bronowicki, J. P., Venard, V., Botte, C., et al. (1997) Patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis C virus during colonoscopy. N Engl J Med, 337, 237–40.
Brown, G. R. and Persley, K. (2002) Hepatitis A epidemic in the elderly. South Med J, 95, 826–33.
Busch, M. P. (2004) Should HBV DNA NAT replace HBsAg and/or anti-HBc screening of blood donors?Transfus Clin Biol, 11, 26–32.
Busch, M. P., Glynn, S. A., Stramer, S. L., et al. (2005) A new strategy for estimating risks of transfusion-transmitted viral infections based on rates of detection of recently infected donors. Transfusion, 45, 254–64.
Cacoub, P., Saadoun, D., Bourliere, M., et al. (2005) Hepatitis B virus genotypes and extrahepatic manifestations. J Hepatol, 43, 764–70.
Catton, M. G. and Locarnini, S. A. (2005) Epidemiology (Hepatitis A). In Viral Hepatitis, eds Thomas, H. C., Lemon, S., Zuckerman, A. J., pp. 92–108. Malden, MA, Blackwell.
Centers for Disease Control (1991) Hepatitis B virus: a comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through Universal childhood vaccination: recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR, 40, 1–19.
Chauhan, A., Jameel, S., Dilawari, J. B., et al. (1993) Hepatitis E virus transmission to a volunteer. Lancet, 341, 149–50.
Choo, Q. L., Kuo, G., Weiner, A. J., et al. (1989) Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science, 244, 359–62.
Chudy, M., Budek, I., Keller-Stanislawski, B., et al. (1999) A new cluster of hepatitis A infection in hemophiliacs traced to a contaminated plasma pool. J Med Virol, 57, 91–9.
Comanor, L. and Holland, P. (2006) Hepatitis B virus blood testing: unfinished agendas. Vox Sang, 91, 1–12.
Courcouce, A. M., Marrec, N., Bouchardeau, F., et al. (2000) Efficacy of HCV core antigen detection during the preseroconversion period. Transfusion, 40, 1198–202.
Dienstag, J. L. (2002) Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B, A and D. In Rossi's Principles of Transfusion Medicine, eds Simon, T. L., Dzik, W. H., Snyder, E. L., Stowell, C. P. and Strauss, R. G., pp. 733–41. Philadelphia, PA, US, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dodd, R. Y., Notari, E. P. and Stramer, S. L. (2002) Current prevalence and incidence of infectious disease markers and estimated window-period risk in the American Red Cross blood donor population. Transfusion, 442, 975–9.
Donahue, J. G., Munoz, A., Ness, P. M., et al. (1992) The declining risk of post-transfusion hepatitis C virus infection. New Engl J Med, 327, 369–373.
Esteban, J. I., Gomez, J., Martell, M., et al. (1996) Transmission of hepatitis C virus by a cardiac surgeon. N Engl J Med, 334, 555–60.
Farci, P., Alter, H. J., Shimoda, A., et al. (1996) Hepatitis C virus-associated fulminant hepatic failure. N Engl J Med, 335, 631–4.
Farci, P., London, W. T., Wong, D. C., et al. (1992) The natural history of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chimpanzees: comparison of serologic responses measured with first- and second-generation assays and relationship to HCV viremia. J Infect Dis, 165, 1006–11.
Feinstone, S. M., Kapikian, A. Z. and Purceli, R. H. (1973) Hepatitis A: detection by immune electron microscopy of a virus like antigen associated with acute illness. Science, 182, 1026–8.
Garnier, L., Inchauspe, G. and Trepo, C. (2002) Hepatitis C virus. In Clinical Virology, eds Richman, D. D., Whitley, R. J., Hayden, F. G., pp. 1153–76. Washington DC, ASM Press.
Gerritzen, A., Schneweis, K. E., Brackmann, H. H., et al. (1992) Acute hepatitis A in haemophiliacs. Lancet, 340, 1231–2.
Giacoia, G. P. and Kasprisin, D. O. (1989) Transfusion-acquired hepatitis A. South Med J, 82, 1357–60.
Gonzalez, M., Regine, V., Piccinini, V., et al. (2005) Residual risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infections in Italy. Transfusion, 45, 1670–5.
Goodnough, L. T., Brecher, M. E., Kanter, M. H., et al. (1999) Transfusion medicine: first of two parts, blood transfusion. New Engl J Med, 340, 438–47.
Gowland, P., Fontana, S., Niederhauser, C., et al. (2004) Molecular and serologic tracing of a transfusion-transmitted hepatitis A virus. Transfusion, 44, 1555–61.
Gresens, C. J., Flynn, N. M., Simon, N. F., et al. (2003) Transfusion (and related secondary) transmission of hepatitis A virus. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Sydney, eds A. R. Jilbert, E. V. L. Grgacic and K. Vickery, pp. 471–2.
Henriques, I., Monteiro, F., Meireles, E., et al. (2005) Prevalence of parvovirus B19 and hepatitis A virus in Portuguese blood donors. Transfus Apher Sci, 33, 305–9.
Hollinger, F. B., Khan, N. C., Oefinger, P. E., et al. (1983) Post-transfusion hepatitis type A. JAMA, 250, 2313–7.
Hoofnagle, J. H. (1990) Post-transfusion hepatitis B. Transfusion, 30, 384–6.
Houghton, M. and Abrignani, S. (2005) Prospects for a vaccine against the hepatitis C virus. Nature, 436, 961–6.
Hourfar, M. K., Schmidt, M., Seifried, E., et al. (2005) Evaluation of an automated high-volume extraction method for viral nucleic acids in comparison to a manual procedure with preceding enrichment. Vox Sang, 89, 71–6.
Hsieh, S. Y., Yang, P. Y., Ho, Y. P., et al. (1998) Identification of a novel strain of hepatitis E virus responsible for sporadic acute hepatitis in Taiwan. J Med Virol, 55, 300–4.
Hyams, K. C. (1995) Risks of chronicity following acute hepatitis B infection: a review. Clin Infect Dis, 20, 992–1000.
Icardi, G., Ansaldi, F., Bruzzone, B. M., et al. (2001) Novel approach to reduce the hepatitis C virus (HCV) window period: clinical evaluation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HCV core antigen. J Clin Microbiol, 39, 3110–4.
International Task Force on Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing of Blood Donors (2000) Nucleic acid amplification testing of blood donors for transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases. Transfusion, 40, 143–59.
Ishikawa, K., Sato, S., Sugai, S., et al. (1984) A case of post-transfusion hepatitis A. Gastroenterol Jpn, 19, 247–50.
Jameel, S. (1999) Molecular biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus. Expert Rev Mol Med, 6 Dec., 1–16.
Jarvis, L. M., Dow, B. C., Cleland, A., et al. (2005) Detection of HCV and HIV-1 antibody negative infections in Scottish and Northern Ireland blood donations by nucleic acid amplification testing. Vox Sang, 89, 128–34.
Jothikumar, N., Cromeans, T. L., Robertson, B. H., et al. (2006) A broadly reactive one-step real-time PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus. J Virol Methods, 131, 65–71.
Kann, M. and Gerlich, W. H. (2005) Hepatitis B virus: structure and molecular virology. In Viral Hepatitis, eds Thomas, H. C., Lemon, S. and Zuckerman, A. J., pp. 149–180. Malden, MA, Blackwell.
Katsoulidou, A., Paraskevis, D., Kalapothaki, V., et al. (1999) Molecular epidemiology of a hepatitis C virus outbreak in a haemodialysis unit. Multicentre haemodialysis cohort study on viral hepatitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 14, 1188–94.
Khuroo, M. S., Kamili, S. and Jameel, S. (1995) Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus. Lancet, 345, 1025–6.
Khuroo, M. S., Kamili, S. and Yatoo, G. N. (2004) Hepatitis E virus infection may be transmitted through blood transfusions in an endemic area. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 19, 778–84.
Kimura, T., Rokuhara, A., Matsumoto, A., et al. (2003) New enzyme immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and relation between levels of HBcAg and HBV DNA. J Clin Microbiol, 41, 1901–6.
Klein, H. G. (2005) Pathogen inactivation technology: cleansing the blood supply. J Intern Med, 257, 224–37.
Kleinman, S. H. and Busch, M. P. (2001) HBV: amplified and back in the blood safety spotlight. Transfusion, 41, 1081–5.
Kleinman, S. H., Strong, D. M., Tegtmeier, G. G., (2005) Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA screening of blood donations in mini-pools with the COBAS AmpliScreen HBV test. Transfusion, 45, 1247–57.
Koff, R. S. (1998) Hepatitis A. Lancet, 351, 1643–9.
Koff, R. S. (2003) Hepatitis vaccines: recent advances. Int J Parasitol, 33, 517–23.
Koppelman, M. H., Sjerps, M. C., Reesink, H. W., et al. (2005) Evaluation of COBAS AmpliPrep nucleic acid extraction in conjunction with COBAS AmpliScreen HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV-1 RNA amplification and detection. Vox Sang, 89, 193–200.
Koziol, D. E., Holland, P. V., Alling, D. W., et al. (1986) Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen as a paradoxical marker for non-A, non-B hepatitis agents in donated blood. Ann Intern Med, 104, 488–95.
Kyrlagkitsis, I., Cramp, M. E., Smith, H., et al. (2002) Acute hepatitis A virus infection: a review of prognostic factors from 25 years' experience in a tertiary referral center. Hepatogastroenterology, 49, 524–8.
Laperche, S., Marrec, N., Simon, N., et al. (2003) A new HCV core antigen assay based on disassociation of immune complexes: an alternative to molecular biology in the diagnosis of early HCV infection. Transfusion, 43, 958–62.
Lauer, G. M. and Walker, B. D. (2001) Hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med, 345, 41–52.
Lee, C. C., Shih, Y. L., Laio, C. S., et al. (2005) Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis E virus among haemodialysis patients in Taiwan: possible infection by blood transfusion. Nephron Clin Pract, 99, 122–7.
Lee, C. K., Chau, T. N., Lim, W., et al. (2005) Prevention of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E by donor-initiated exclusion. Transfus Med, 15, 133–5.
Lee, K. K., Vargo, L. R., Le, C. T., et al. (1992) Tranfusion-acquired hepatitis A outbreak from fresh frozen plasma in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 11, 122–3.
Lee, S. R., Peterson, J., Niven, P., et al. (2001) Efficacy of a hepatitis C virus core antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of ‘window-phase’ blood donations. Vox Sang, 80, 19–23.
Lemon, S. M. (1997) Type A viral hepatitis: epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention. Clin Chem, 43B, 1494–9.
Letowska, M., Brojer, E., Mikulska, M., et al. (2004) Hepatitis C core antigen in Polish blood donors. Transfusion, 44, 1067–71.
Lin, L., Cook, D. N., Wiesehahn, G. P., et al. (1997) Photochemical inactivation of virus and bacteria in platelet concentrates by use of a novel psoralen and long-wavelength ultraviolet light. Transfusion, 37, 423–35.
Macnaughton, T. B. (2003) New directions and predictions for the future – hepatitis D. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Sydney, eds A. R. Jilbert, E. V. L. Grgacic and K. Vickery, pp. 237–40.
Mannucci, P. M. (1992) Outbreak of hepatitis A among Italian patients with haemophilia. Lancet, 339, 819 (letter).
Mannucci, P. M., Gdovin, S., Gringeri, A., et al. (1993) Transmission of hepatitis A to patients with hemophilia by factor VIII concentrates treated with organic solvent and detergent to inactivate viruses. The Italian Collaborative Group. Ann Intern Med, 120, 1–7.
Mason, W. S. and Jilbert, A. R. (2003) Hepatitis B virus: an unresolved problem. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Sydney, eds A. R. Jilbert, E. V. L. Grgacic and K. Vickery, pp. 254–62.
Mast, E. E., Favorov, M. O., Shapiro, C. N., et al. (1996) Hepatitis E virus infection in the Americas. In Enterically-transmitted Hepatitis Viruses, eds Buisson, Y., Coursaget, P. and Kane, M., pp. 282–93. Tours, France, La Simarre.
Mast, E. E., Kuramoto, I. K., Favorov, M. O., et al. (1997) Prevalence of and risk factors for antibody to hepatitis E virus seroreactivity among blood donors in northern California. J Infect Dis, 176, 34–40.
Masuda, J. I., Yano, K., Tamada, Y., et al. (2005) Acute hepatitis E of a man who consumed wild boar meat prior to the onset of illness in Nagasaki, Japan. Hepatol Res, 31, 178–83.
Matsubayashi, K., Nagaoka, Y., Sakata, H., et al. (2004) Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E caused by apparently indigenous hepatitis E virus strain in Hokkaido, Japan. Transfusion, 44, 934–40.
Melnick, J. L. (1995) History and epidemiology of hepatitis A virus. J Infect Dis, 171(Suppl. 1), S2–S8.
Mimms, L. T., Mosley, J. W., Hollinger, F. B., et al. (1993) Effect of concurrent acute infection with hepatitis C virus on acute hepatitis B virus infection. Br Med J, 307, 1095–7.
Mitsui, T., Tsukamoto, Y., Yamazaki, C., et al. (2004) Prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection among hemodialysis patients in Japan: evidence for infection with a genotype 3 HEV by blood transfusion. J Med Virol, 74, 563–72.
Montella, F., Rezza, G., Di Sora, F., et al. (1994) Association between hepatitis E virus and HIV infection in homosexual men. Lancet, 344, 1433 (letter).
Morgan, H. W. and Williamson, D. A. (1943) Jaundice following administration of human blood products. BMJ, 1, 750–3.
Muerhoff, A. S. and Dawson, G. J. (2004) Hepatitis C virus. In Viral Hepatitis: Molecular Biology, Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Control (Perspectives in Medical Virology, volume 10), ed. Mushahwar, I. K., pp. 127–71. Amsterdam, Elsevier.
Nanda, S. K., Ansari, I. H., Acharya, S. K., et al. (1995) Protracted viremia during acute sporadic hepatitis E virus infection. Gastroenterology, 108, 225–30.
Nelson, K., Ahmed, A., Ness, P. M., et al. (1993) Efficacy of donor screening methods on reducing the risk of transfusion-transmission of hepatitis C virus. Fourth International Symposium on HCV, Tokyo, 40 (abstract).
Nigro, G. and Del Grosso, B. (1990) Transfusion acquired hepatitis A in a patient with β-thal major. J Infect, 20, 175–6.
Noble, R. C., Kane, M. A., Reeves, S. A., et al. (1984) Post-transfusion hepatitis A in a neonatal intensive care unit. JAMA, 252, 2711–5.
Ohto, H. S., Terazawa, S., Sasaki, N., et al. (1994) Transmission of hepatitis C virus from mothers to infants. N Engl J Med, 330, 744–50.
Patel, T. (2006) Cholangiocarcinoma. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol, 3, 33–42.
Peerlinch, K. and Vermylen, J. (1993) Acute hepatitis A in patients with haemophilia A. Lancet, 341, 179 (letter).
Pereira, B. J., Milford, E. L., Kirkman, R. L., et al. (1991) Transmission of hepatitis C virus by organ transplantation. N Engl J Med, 325, 454–60.
Pereira, B. J., Milford, E. L., Kirkman, R. L., et al. (1992) Prevalence of hepatitis C virus RNA in organ donors positive for hepatitis C antibody and in the recipients of their organs. N Engl J Med, 327, 910–5.
Peterson, J., Green, G., Iida, K., et al. (2000) Detection of hepatitis C core antigen in the antibody negative ‘window’ phase of hepatitis C infection. Vox Sang, 78, 80–5.
Piccoli, P. L., Franchini, M., Gandini, G., et al. (2001) HCV core antigen assay. Transfusion, 41, 1172 (letter).
Pileri, P., Uematsu, Y., Campagnoli, S., et al. (1998) Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81. Science, 282, 938–41.
Previsani, N., Lavanchy, D. and Siegl, G. (2004) Hepatitis A. In Viral Hepatitis: Molecular Biology, Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Control (Perspectives in Medical Virology, volume 10), ed. Mushahwar, I. K., pp. 1–98. Amsterdam, Elsevier.
Purcell, R. H., and Emerson, S. U. (2005) In Viral Hepatitis, eds Thomas, H. C., Lemon, S. and Zuckerman, A. J., pp. 109–25. Malden, MA, Blackwell.
Quer, J. and Mur, J. I. E. (2005) Hepatitis C virus: epidemiology. In Viral Hepatitis, eds Thomas, H. C., Lemon, S. and Zuckerman, A. J., pp. 407–25. Malden, MA, Blackwell.
Raimondo, G., Longo, G. and Caredda, F. (1986) Prolonged, polyphasic infection with hepatitis A. J Infect Dis, 153, 172–3.
Rosenblum, L. S., Villarino, M. E., Nainan, O. V., et al. (1991) Margolis HS. Hepatitis A outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors for transmission and evidence of prolonged viral excretion among preterm infants. J Infect Dis, 164, 476–82.
Ross, R. S., Viazov, S., Gross, T., et al. (2000) Transmission of hepatitis C virus from a patient to an anesthesiology assistant to five patients. N Engl J Med, 343, 1851–4.
Roth, W. K. and Seifried, E. (2002) The German experience with NAT. Transfus Med, 12, 255–8.
Sagnelli, E., Coppola, N., Marrocco, C., et al. (2003) HAV replication in acute hepatitis with typical and atypical clinical course. J Med Virol, 71, 1–6.
Satake, M. (2005) Lookback study for transfusion-related HBV infection in Japan. Transfusion, 45, 9A–10A (abstract).
Schreiber, G. B., Busch, M. P., Kleinman, S. H., et al. (1996) The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. N Eng J Med, 334, 1685–90.
Seeberg, S., Brandberg, A., Hermodsson, S., et al. (1981) Hospital outbreak of hepatitis A secondary to blood exchange in a baby. Lancet, 1, 1155–6.
Seed, C. R., Kiely, P. and Keller, A. J. (2005) Residual risk of transfusion transmitted human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human T lymphotropic virus. Intern Med J, 35, 592–8.
Shah, U., Habib, Z. and Kleinman, R. E. (2000) Liver failure attributable to hepatitis A virus infection in a developing country. Pediatrics, 105, 436–8.
Sheretz, R. J., Russell, B. A. and Reuman, P. D. (1984) Transmission of hepatitis A by transfusion of blood products. Arch Intern Med, 144, 1579–80.
Skidmore, S. J., Boxall, E. H. and Ala, F. (1982) A case of post-transfusion hepatitis A. J Med Virol, 10, 223.
Snyder, E. L. and Dodd, R. Y. (2001) Reducing the risk of blood transfusion. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program), 433–42.
Soldan, K., Davison, K. and Dow, B. (2005) Estimates of the frequency of HBV, HCV and HIV infectious donations entering the blood supply in the United Kingdom, 1996 to 2003. Euro Surveill, 110, 17–9.
Soucie, J. M., Robertson, B. H., Bell, B. P., et al. (1998) Hepatitis A virus infections associated with clotting factor concentrate in the United States. Transfusion, 38, 573–9.
Stevens, C. E., Aach, R. D., Hollinger, F. B., et al. (1984) Hepatitis B virus antibody in blood donors and the occurrence of non-A, non-B hepatitis in transfusion recipients. An analysis of the Transfusion-transmitted Viruses Study. Ann Intern Med, 101, 733–8.
Stramer, S. L. (2005) Pooled HBV DNA testing by nucleic acid amplification: implementation or not. Transfusion, 45, 1242–6.
Stramer, S. L., Glynn, S. A., Kleinman, S. H., et al. (2004) Detection of HIV-1 and HCV infections among antibody-negative blood donors by nucleic acid-amplification testing. N Eng J Med, 351, 760–8.
Takaki, A., Wiese, M., Maertens, G., et al. (2000) Cellular immune responses persist and humoral responses decrease two decades after recovery from a single-source outbreak of hepatitis C. Nat Med, 6, 578–82.
Tanaka, E., Ohue, C., Aoyagi, K., et al. (2000) Evaluation of a new enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen with clinical sensitivity approximating that of genomic amplification of HCV RNA. Hepatology, 32, 388–93.
Tasar, M. A., Bostanci, I., Karabulut, B., et al. (2005) A rare extrahepatic syndrome related to acute hepatitis type B: epididymitis in an adolescent. Acta Gastroenterol Belg, 68, 270–1.
Tei, S., Kitajima, N., Takahashi, K., et al. (2003) Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings. Lancet, 362, 371–3.
Temperley, I. J., Cotter, K. P., Walsh, T. J., et al. (1992) Clotting factors and hepatitis A. Lancet, 340, 1466 (letter).
Thomas, D. L., Yarbough, P. O., Vlahov, D., et al. (1997) Seroreactivity to hepatitis E virus in areas where the disease is not endemic. J Clin Microbiol, 35, 1244–7.
Tjon, G. M. S., Coutinho, R. A., Hoek, A., et al. (2006) High and persistent excretion of hepatitis A virus in immunocompetent patients. J Med Virol, 78, 1398–405.
Tobler, L. H., Stramer, S. L., Lee, S. F., et al. (2005) Performance of ORTHO HCV core antigen and trak-C assays for detection of viraemia in pre-seroconversion plasma and whole blood donors. Vox Sang, 89, 201–7.
Walsh, J. H., Purcell, R. H., Morrow, A. G., et al. (1970) Post-transfusion hepatitis after open-heart operations. JAMA, 211, 261–5.
Wang, C. H., Flehmig, B. and Moeckli, R. (1993) Transmission of hepatitis E virus by transfusion? Lancet, 341, 285–6.
Wang, J. T., Lin, J. T., Sheu, J. C., et al. (1994) Hepatitis E virus and post-transfusion hepatitis. J Infect Dis, 169, 229–36.
Wang, L. and Zhuang, H. (2004) Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research. World J Gastroenterol, 10, 2157–62.
World Health Organization (2001) Hepatitis B surface antigen assays: operational characteristics (May), Geneva, World Health Organization.
Worm, H. C. and Wirnsberger, G. (2004) Hepatitis E vaccines: progress and prospects. Drugs, 64, 1517–31.
Zanetti, A. R. and Dawson, G. J. (1994) Hepatitis E in Italy: a seroepidemiological survey. Study group of hepatitis E. J Med Virol, 42, 318–20.
Zanetti, A. R., Tanzi, E., Paccagnini, S., et al. (1995) Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Lancet, 345, 289–90.
Zarski, J. P., Ganem, D. and Wright, T. L. (2002) Hepatitis B virus. In Clinical Virology, eds Richman, D. D., Whitley, R. J. and Hayden, F. G., pp. 623–57. Washington DC, ASM Press.
Zignego, A. L. and Brechot, C. (1999) Extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection: facts and controversies. J Hepatol, 31, 369–76.