Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: September 2014

Chapter 18 - Acute therapies for stroke

from Section 4: - Therapeutic strategies and neurorehabilitation

References

1. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) Executive Committee; ESO Writing Committee. Guidelines for the management of ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack 2008. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 25:457–507.
2. Steiner T, Kaste M, Forsting M, et al. Recommendations for the management of intracranial haemorrhage - part 1: spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. The European Stroke Initiative Writing Committee and the Writing Committee for the EUSI Executive Committee. Cerebrovasc Dis 2006; 22:294–316.
3. European Stroke Organisation. Guidelines for Stroke Management. Available from: http://www.eso-stroke.org/recommendations.php?cid=9&sid=1 (accessed April 28, 2013).
4.Karolinska Stroke Update. Consensus Statements 2012. Available from: http://www.strokeupdate.org/Cons_Reperf_IVT_2012.aspx (accessed April 28, 2013).
5. Hacke W, Kaste M, Fieschi C, et al. Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute hemispheric stroke. The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS). JAMA 1995; 274(13): 1017–25.
6. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischaemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:1581–7.
7. Hacke W, Kaste M, Fieschi C, et al. Randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS II). Second European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study Investigators. Lancet 1998; 352:1245–51.
8. Clark WM, Wissman S, Albers GW, et al. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Alteplase) for ischemic stroke 3 to 5 hours after symptom onset: The ATLANTIS Study: a randomized controlled trial. Alteplase Thrombolysis for Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic Stroke. JAMA 1999; 282(21):2019–26.
9. Hacke W, Donnan G, Fieschi C, et al. Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS and NINDS rt-PA stroke trials. Lancet 2004; 363:768–74.
10. Wahlgren N, Ahmed N, Davalos A, et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational study. Lancet 2007; 369:275–82.
11. Wahlgren N, Ahmed N, Davalos A, et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3–4.5h after acute ischaemic stroke (SITS-ISTR): an observational study. Lancet 2008; 372:1303–9.
12. Hacke W, Kaste M, Bluhmki E, et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359(13):1317–29.
13. Ahmed N, Wahlgren N, Grond M, et al. Implementation and outcome of thrombolysis with alteplase 3–4.5 h after an acute stroke: an updated analysis from SITS-ISTR. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9(9):866–74.
14. Lees KR, Bluhmki E, von Kummer RD, et al. Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials. Lancet 2010; 375(9727):1695–703.
15. IST-3 collaborative group, Sandercock P, Wardlaw JM, et al. The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke (the third International Stroke Trial [IST-3]): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012; 379(9834):2352–63.
16. Wardlaw JM, Murray V, Berge E, et al. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2012; 379(9834):2364–72.
17. Lansberg MG, Thijs VN, Bammer R, et al. Risk factors of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after tPA therapy for acute stroke. Stroke 2007; 38(8): 2275–8.
18. Frank B, Grotta JC, Alexandrov AV, et al. Thrombolysis in stroke despite contraindications or warnings? Stroke 2013; 44(3):727–33.
19. Zinkstok SM, Roos YB. Early administration of aspirin in patients treated with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012; 380(9843):731–7.
20. Molina CA, Ribo M, Rubiera M, et al. Microbubble administration accelerates clot lysis during continuous 2-MHz ultrasound monitoring in stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Stroke 2006; 37(2):425–9.
21. Broderick JP, Palesch YY, Demchuk AM, et al. Endovascular therapy after intravenous t-PA versus t-PA alone for stroke. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(10): 893–903.
22. Smith WS, Sung G, Starkman S, et al. Safety and efficacy of mechanical embolectomy in acute ischemic stroke: results of the MERCI trial. Stroke 2005; 36(7): 1432–8.
23. Nogueira RG, Lutsep HL, Gupta R, et al. Trevo versus Merci retrievers for thrombectomy revascularisation of large vessel occlusions in acute ischaemic stroke (TREVO 2): a randomised trial. Lancet 2012; 380(9849): 1231–40.
24. Broussalis E, Trinka E, Hitzl W, et al. Comparison of stent-retriever devices versus the Merci retriever for endovascular treatment of acute stroke. Am J Neuroradiol 2013; 34(2):366–72.
25. Saver JL, Jahan R, Levy EI, et al. Solitaire flow restoration device versus the Merci Retriever in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (SWIFT): a randomised, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial. Lancet 2012; 380(9849): 1241–9.
26. Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy-I: Prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. Antiplatelet Trialists’ Collaboration. BMJ 1994; 308(6921):81–106.
27. The International Stroke Trial (IST): a randomised trial of aspirin, subcutaneous heparin, both, or neither among 19,435 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. International Stroke Trial Collaborative Group. Lancet 1997; 349:1569–81.
28. CAST: randomised placebo-controlled trial of early aspirin use in 20,000 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. CAST (Chinese Acute Stroke Trial) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1997; 349:1641–9.
29. Wardlaw JM, Keir SL, Seymour J, et al. What is the best imaging strategy for acute stroke? Health Technol Assess 2004; 8:1–180.
30. Antithrombotic Trialists’ Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324(7329):71–86.
31. ESPRIT Study Group, Halkes PH, van Gijn J, et al. Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 367:1665–73.
32. Sacco RL, Diener H-C, Yusuf S, et al. Aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel for recurrent stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359(12):1238–51.
33. Markus HS, Droste DW, Kaps M, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using doppler embolic signal detection: the Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial. Circulation 2005; 111(17):2233–40.
34. Diener H-C, Bogouslavsky J, Brass LM, et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack in high-risk patients (MATCH): randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364:331–7.
35. Fau WY, Johnston SC. Rationale and design of a randomized, double-blind trial comparing the effects of a 3-month clopidogrel-aspirin regimen versus aspirin alone for the treatment of high-risk patients with acute nondisabling cerebrovascular event. Am Heart J 2010; 160(3):380–6.e1.
36. Wang Y, Wang Y, Zhao X, et al. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the treatment of high-risk patients with acute non-disabling cerebrovascular event (CHANCE): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. International Stroke Conference 2013. 2013: Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
37. Gubitz G, Sandercock P, Counsell C. Anticoagulants for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 3:CD000024.
38. Paciaroni M, Agnelli G, Micheli S, Caso V. Efficacy and safety of anticoagulant treatment in acute cardioembolic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Stroke 2007; 38(2):423–30.
39. Shuaib A, Lees KR, Lyden P, et al. NXY-059 for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:562–71.
40. Friday G, Alter M, Lai S-M. Control of hypertension and risk of stroke recurrence. Stroke 2002; 33(11):2652–7.
41. Robinson TG, Potter JF. Blood pressure in acute stroke. Age Ageing 2004; 33:6–12.
42. Leonardi-Bee J, Bath PM, Phillips SJ, Sandercock PA; IST Collaborative Group. Blood pressure and clinical outcomes in the International Stroke Trial. Stroke 2002; 33:1315–20.
43. Brott T, Lu M, Kothari R, et al. Hypertension and its treatment in the NINDS rt-PA Stroke Trial. Stroke 1998; 29:1504–9.
44. Bath P, Chalmers J, Powers W, et al. International Society of Hypertension (ISH): statement on the management of blood pressure in acute stroke. J Hypertens 2003; 21(4):665–72.
45. Castillo J, Leira R, Garcia MM, et al. Blood pressure decrease during the acute phase of ischaemic stroke is associated with brain injury and poor stroke outcome. Stroke 2004; 35:520–7.
46. Willmot, M, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath PM. High blood pressure in acute stroke and subsequent outcome. A systemic review. Hypertension 2004; 43:18–24.
47. Mattle HP, Kappeler L, Arnold M, et al. Blood pressure and vessel recanalization in the first hours after ischemic stroke. Stroke 2005; 36:264–9.
48. Tsivgoulis G, Saqqur M, Sharma VK, et al. Association of pretreatment blood pressure with tissue plasminogen activator-induced arterial recanalization in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 2007; 38:961–6.
49. Robinson TG, Potter JF, Ford GA, et al. Effects of antihypertensive treatment after acute stroke in the Continue or Stop Post-Stroke Antihypertensives Collaborative Study (COSSACS): a prospective, randomised, open, blinded-endpoint trial. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9(8):767–75.
50. Blood Pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration (BASC). Interventions for deliberately altering blood pressure in acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 3:CD000039. DOI 10.1002/114651858.CD000039.
51. O’Brien RE, Lees KR. Management of acute poststroke blood pressure and detection of atrial fibrillation: a postal questionnaire of UK stroke physicians’ current clinical practice. Scott Med J 2012; 57(4):204–8.
52. Adams HP, Jr., del Zoppo G, Alberts MJ, et al. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke 2007; 38(5):1655–711.
53. Capes SE, Hunt D, Malmberg K, Pathak P, Gerstein HC. Stress hyperglycaemia and prognosis of stroke in nondiabetic and diabetic patients: a systematic overview. Stroke 2001; 32:2426–32.
54. Scott J, Gray C, O’Connell J, Alberti K. Glucose and insulin therapy in acute stroke; why delay further? QJM 1998; 91:511–15.
55. Malmberg K, Ryden L, Effendic S, et al. Randomised trial of insulin glucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction. The DIGAMI Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 26:57–65.
56. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1359–67.
57. The NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2009; 360(13):1283–97.
58. Gray CS, Hildreth AJ, Sandercock PA, et al. Glucose-potassium-insulin infusions in the management of post-stroke hyperglycaemia: the UK Glucose Insulin in Stroke Trial (GIST-UK). Lancet Neurol 2007; 6:397–406.
59. Vahedi K, Hofmeijer J, Juettler E, et al. Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6:215–22.
60. Juttler E, Bosel J, Amiri H, et al. DESTINY II: DEcompressive Surgery for the Treatment of malignant INfarction of the middle cerebral arter Y II. Int J Stroke 2011; 6(1):79–86.
61. Hacke W, Bosel J, Amiri H, et al.; DESTINY II Study Group. DESTINY II (DEcompressive Surgery for the Treatment of malignant INfarction of the middle cerebral arter Y II): primary endpoint results. 8th World Stroke Congress. 2012: Brasilia, Brazil.
62. Anderson CS, Huang Y, Wang JG, et al. Intensive blood pressure reduction in acute cerebral haemorrhage trial (INTERACT): a randomised pilot trial. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7(5):391–9.
63. Qureshi A I, Palesch YY. Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH) II: design, methods, and rationale. Neurocrit Care 2011; 15:559–76.
64. Albers GW, Amarenco P, Easton JD, Sacco RL, Teal P. Antithrombotic and antithrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest 2004; 126:483S–512S.
65. Mendelow AD, Gregson BA, Fernandes HM, et al. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haematomas in the International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH): a randomised trial. Lancet 2005; 365(9457):387–97.
66. Mayer SA, Brun NC, Begtrup K, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2008; 358(20):2127–37.