Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter 48 - Rehabilitation in spinal cord injury

from Section 7 - Disease-specific neurorehabilitation systems

References

1. Fehlings MG, Sekhon LH. Acute interventions in spinal cord injury: what do we know, what should we do? Clin Neurosurg 2001; 48: 226–42.
2. van den Berg ME, Castellote JM, Mahillo-Fernandez I, et al. Incidence of spinal cord injury worldwide: a systematic review. Neuroepidemiology 2010; 34: 184–92.
3. DeVivo MJ, Black KJ, Stover SL. Causes of death during the first 12 years after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1993; 74: 248–54.
4. Guilcher SJ, Munce SE, Couris CM, et al. Health care utilization in non-traumatic and traumatic spinal cord injury: a population-based study. Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 45–50.
5. Gupta A, Taly AB, Srivastava A, et al. Non-traumatic spinal cord lesions: epidemiology, complications, neurological and functional outcome of rehabilitation. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 307–11.
6. McCammon JR, Ethans K. Spinal cord injury in Manitoba: a provincial epidemiological study. J Spinal Cord Med 2011; 34: 6–10.
7. New PW, Simmonds F, Stevermuer T. A population-based study comparing traumatic spinal cord injury and non-traumatic spinal cord injury using a national rehabilitation database. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 397–403.
8. Tan M, New P. Survival after rehabilitation for spinal cord injury due to tumor: a 12-year retrospective study. J Neurooncol 2011; 104: 233–8.
9. van den Berg ME, Castellote JM, de Pedro-Cuesta J, et al. Survival after spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Neurotrauma 2010; 27: 1517–28.
10. Scivoletto G, Farchi S, Laurenza L, et al. Traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord lesions: an Italian comparison of neurological and functional outcomes. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 391–6.
11. Dijkers M. Quality of life after spinal cord injury: a meta analysis of the effects of disablement components. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 829–40.
12. American Spinal Injury Association. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury, 2000.
13. McKinley W, Santos K, Meade M, et al. Incidence and outcomes of spinal cord injury clinical syndromes. J Spinal Cord Med 2007; 30: 215–24.
14. Kumral E, Polat F, Gulluoglu H, et al. Spinal ischaemic stroke: clinical and radiological findings and short-term outcome. Eur J Neurol 2011; 18: 232–9.
15. Ozer MN, Gibson L. Neurological consultation for persons with spinal cord injury. In Redford JB, ed. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews. Philadelphia, PA, 1987; 3401.
16. Schneider RC, Cherry G, Pantek H. The syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury; with special reference to the mechanisms involved in hyperextension injuries of cervical spine. J Neurosurg 1954; 11: 546–77.
17. Song J, Mizuno J, Nakagawa H, et al. Surgery for acute subaxial traumatic central cord syndrome without fracture or dislocation. J Clin Neurosci 2005; 12: 438–43.
18. van Middendorp JJ, Pouw MH, Hayes KC, et al. Diagnostic criteria of traumatic central cord syndrome. Part 2: a questionnaire survey among spine specialists. Spinal Cord 2010;48: 657–63.
19. Kobayashi N, Asamoto S, Doi H, et al. Brown-Sequard syndrome produced by cervical disc herniation: report of two cases and review of the literature. Spine J 2003; 3: 530–3.
20. Taylor RG, Gleave JR. Incomplete spinal cord injuries with Brown-Sequard phenomena. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 1957; 39B: 438–50.
21. Waters RL, Sie I, Adkins RH, et al. Motor recovery following spinal cord injury caused by stab wounds: a multicenter study. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 98–101.
22. Harrop JS, Naroji S, Maltenfort MG, et al. Neurologic improvement after thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spinal cord (conus medullaris) injuries. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011; 36: 21–5.
23. Sinclair A, Davies N. Neurological picture. Conus medullaris lesion causing bilateral lower limb myokymia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78: 1136.
24. Demetriades AK, Naik S, Gunasekera L. Conus medullaris syndrome from a transdural disc herniation at the thoracolumbar junction. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2010; 152: 1081–2.
25. Curt A, Dietz V. Electrophysiological recordings in patients with spinal cord injury: significance for predicting outcome. Spinal Cord 1999; 37: 157–65.
26. Ellaway PH, Anand P, Bergstrom EM, et al. Towards improved clinical and physiological assessments of recovery in spinal cord injury: a clinical initiative. Spinal Cord 2004; 42: 325–37.
27. Ellaway PH, Catley M, Davey NJ, et al. Review of physiological motor outcome measures in spinal cord injury using transcranial magnetic stimulation and spinal reflexes. J Rehabil Res Dev 2007; 44: 69–76.
28. Dietz V, Curt A. Neurological aspects of spinal-cord repair: promises and challenges. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5: 688–94.
29. Curt A, Van Hedel HJ, Klaus D, et al. Recovery from a spinal cord injury: significance of compensation, neural plasticity, and repair. J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 677–85.
30. Chabot R, York DH, Watts C, et al. Somatosensory evoked potentials evaluated in normal subjects and spinal cord-injured patients. J Neurosurg 1985; 63: 544–51.
31. Nuwer MR. Spinal cord monitoring. Muscle Nerve 1999; 22: 1620–30.
32. Chen R, Cros D, Curra A, et al. The clinical diagnostic utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation: report of an IFCN committee. Clin Neurophysiol 2008; 119: 504–32.
33. Hess CW, Mills KR, Murray NM, et al. Magnetic brain stimulation: central motor conduction studies in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1987; 22: 744–52.
34. Rothwell JC. Techniques and mechanisms of action of transcranial stimulation of the human motor cortex. J Neurosci Methods 1997; 74: 113–22.
35. Curt A, Weinhardt C, Dietz V. Significance of sympathetic skin response in the assessment of autonomic failure in patients with spinal cord injury. J Auton Nerv Syst 1996; 61: 175–80.
36. Curt A, Nitsche B, Rodic B, et al. Assessment of autonomic dysreflexia in patients with spinal cord injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997; 62: 473–7.
37. Nitsche B, Perschak H, Curt A, et al. Loss of circadian blood pressure variability in complete tetraplegia. J Hum Hypertens 1996; 10: 311–17.
38. van Hedel HJ, Curt A. Fighting for each segment: estimating the clinical value of cervical and thoracic segments in SCI. J Neurotrauma 2006; 23: 1621–31.
39. Kramer JL, Moss AJ, Taylor P, et al. Assessment of posterior spinal cord function with electrical perception threshold in spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 1019–26.
40. Zariffa J, Kramer JL, Fawcett JW, et al. Characterization of neurological recovery following traumatic sensorimotor complete thoracic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 463–71.
41. Chen AC, Niddam DM, Arendt-Nielsen L. Contact heat evoked potentials as a valid means to study nociceptive pathways in human subjects. Neurosci Lett 2001; 316: 79–82.
42. Granovsky Y, Matre D, Sokolik A, et al. Thermoreceptive innervation of human glabrous and hairy skin: a contact heat evoked potential analysis. Pain 2005; 115: 238–47.
43. Wydenkeller S, Wirz R, Halder P. Spinothalamic tract conduction velocity estimated using contact heat evoked potentials: what needs to be considered. Clin Neurophysiol 2008; 119: 812–21.
44. Curt A, Dietz V. Nerve conduction study in cervical spinal cord injury: significance for hand function. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 1996; 7: 165–73.
45. Kelleher MO, Tan G, Sarjeant R, et al. Predictive value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during cervical spine surgery: a prospective analysis of 1055 consecutive patients. J Neurosurg Spine 2008; 8: 215–21.
46. Curt A, Keck ME, Dietz V. Functional outcome following spinal cord injury: significance of motor-evoked potentials and ASIA scores. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 81–6.
47. Diehl P, Kliesch U, Dietz V, et al. Impaired facilitation of motor evoked potentials in incomplete spinal cord injury. J Neurol 2006; 253: 51–7.
48. Petersen NT, Butler JE, Marchand-Pauvert V, et al. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking. J Physiol 2001; 537: 651–6.
49. Iseli E, Cavigelli A, Dietz V, et al Prognosis and recovery in ischaemic and traumatic spinal cord injury: clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999; 67: 567–71.
50. Curt A, Dietz V. Traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: relation between somatosensory evoked potentials, neurological deficit, and hand function. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77: 48–53.
51. Curt A, Dietz V. Ambulatory capacity in spinal cord injury: significance of somatosensory evoked potentials and ASIA protocol in predicting outcome. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1997; 78: 39–43.
52. Curt A, Rodic B, Schurch B, et al. Recovery of bladder function in patients with acute spinal cord injury: significance of ASIA scores and somatosensory evoked potentials. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 368–73.
53. Cadotte DW, Fehlings MG. Spinal cord injury: a systematic review of current treatment options. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2011; 469: 732–41.
54. Furlan JC, Kailaya-Vasan A, Aarabi B, et al. A novel approach to quantitatively assess posttraumatic cervical spinal canal compromise and spinal cord compression: a multicenter responsiveness study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011; 36: 784–93.
55. Lenehan B, Fisher CG, Vaccaro A, et al. The urgency of surgical decompression in acute central cord injuries with spondylosis and without instability. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2010; 35: S180–6.
56. Jaksche H, Schaan M, Schulz J, et al. Posttraumatic syringomyelia–a serious complication in tetra- and paraplegic patients. Acta Neurochir Suppl 2005; 93: 165–7.
57. Lammertse D, Dungan D, Dreisbach J, et al. Neuroimaging in traumatic spinal cord injury: an evidence-based review for clinical practice and research. J Spinal Cord Med 2007; 30: 205–14.
58. Ditunno JF, Little JW, Tessler A, et al. Spinal shock revisited: a four-phase model. Spinal Cord 2004; 42: 383–95.
59. Adams MM, Hicks AL. Spasticity after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 577–86.
60. Todd NV. Priapism in acute spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 1033–5.
61. Tibbs PA, Bivins BA, Young AB. The problem of acute abdominal disease during spinal shock. Am Surg 1979; 45: 366–8.
62. Ashworth B. Preliminary trial of carisoprodol in multiple sclerosis. Practitioner 1964; 192: 540–2.
63. Bohannon RW, Smith MB. Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth scale of muscle spasticity. Phys Ther 1987; 67: 206–7.
64. Snow BJ, Tsui JK, Bhatt MH, et al. Treatment of spasticity with botulinum toxin: a double-blind study. Ann Neurol 1990; 28: 512–5.
65. Nance PW. A comparison of clonidine, cyproheptadine and baclofen in spastic spinal cord injured patients. J Am Paraplegia Soc 1994; 17: 150–6.
66. Margot-Duclot A, Tournebise H, Ventura M, et al. What are the risk factors of occurrence and chronicity of neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury patients? Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2009; 52: 111–23.
67. Siddall PJ, Loeser JD. Pain following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 63–73.
68. Siddall PJ, Taylor DA, Cousins MJ. Classification of pain following spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 69–75.
69. Robert R, Perrouin-Verbe B, Albert T, et al. Chronic neuropathic pain in spinal cord injured patients: what is the effectiveness of surgical treatments excluding central neurostimulations? Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2009; 52: 194–202.
70. Hoffman JM, Bombardier CH, Graves DE, et al. A longitudinal study of depression from 1 to 5 years after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011; 92: 411–18.
71. Kalpakjian CZ, Bombardier CH, Schomer K, et al. Measuring depression in persons with spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med 2009; 32: 6–24.
72. Pollard C, Kennedy P. A longitudinal analysis of emotional impact, coping strategies and post-traumatic psychological growth following spinal cord injury: a 10-year review. Br J Health Psychol 2007; 12: 347–62.
73. Egner A, Phillips VL, Vora R, et al. Depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life among people with advanced multiple sclerosis: results from an exploratory telerehabilitation study. NeuroRehabil 2003; 18: 125–33.
74. Elliott TR, Frank RG. Depression following spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77: 816–23.
75. Tamplin J, Brazzale DJ, Pretto JJ, et al. Assessment of breathing patterns and respiratory muscle recruitment during singing and speech in quadriplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011; 92: 250–6.
76. Teasell RW, Hsieh JT, Aubut JA, et al. Venous thromboembolism after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 90: 232–45.
77. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Acute management of autonomic dysreflexia: adults with spinal cord injury presenting to health-care facilities. J Spinal Cord Med 1997; 20: 284–308.
78. Krassioukov A, Alexander MS, Karlsson AK, et al. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set. Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 586–90.
79. Krassioukov A, Eng JJ, Warburton DE, et al. A systematic review of the management of orthostatic hypotension after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 90: 876–85.
80. Alan N, Ramer LM, Inskip JA, et al. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia exacerbates vascular dysfunction after spinal cord injury. Spine J 2010; 10: 1108–17.
81. Claydon VE, Elliott SL, Sheel AW, et al. Cardiovascular responses to vibrostimulation for sperm retrieval in men with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2006; 29: 207–16.
82. Linsenmeyer TA, Culkin D. APS recommendations for the urological evaluation of patients with spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 1999; 22: 139–42.
83. Gore RM, Mintzer RA, Calenoff L. Gastrointestinal complications of spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1981; 6: 538–44.
84. Cardenas DD, Hooton TM. Urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1995; 76: 272–80.
85. Albert TJ, Levine MJ, Balderston RA, et al. Gastrointestinal complications in spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1991; 16: S522–5.
86. Hagen EM, Lie SA, Rekand T, et al. Mortality after traumatic spinal cord injury: 50 years of follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010; 81: 368–73.
87. DiMarco AF, Kowalski KE, Geertman RT, et al. Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation to restore cough in patients with spinal cord injury: results of a National Institutes of Health sponsored clinical trial. Part II: clinical outcomes. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 90: 726–32.
88. Strakowski JA, Pease WS, Johnson EW. Phrenic nerve stimulation in the evaluation of ventilator-dependent individuals with C4- and C5-level spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 86: 153–7.
89. Merli GJ, Herbison GJ, Ditunno JF, et al. Deep vein thrombosis: prophylaxis in acute spinal cord injured patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988; 69: 661–4.
90. Myllynen P, Kammonen M, Rokkanen P, et al. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients with acute spinal cord injury: a comparison with nonparalyzed patients immobilized due to spinal fractures. J Trauma 1985; 25: 541–3.
91. Green D, Biddle AK, Fahey V, et al. Prevention of thromboembolism in spinal cord injury. Clinical practice guidelines. Consort Spinal Cord Med Paralyzed Vets Am 1997; 1–20.
92. Yarkony GM, Chen D, Palmer J, et al. Management of impotence due to spinal cord injury using low dose papaverine. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 77–9.
93. Teasell RW, Arnold JM, Krassioukov A, et al. Cardiovascular consequences of loss of supraspinal control of the sympathetic nervous system after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 506–16.
94. Finerman GA, Stover SL. Heterotopic ossification following hip replacement or spinal cord injury. Two clinical studies with EHDP. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 1981; 3: 337–42.
95. Orzel JA, Rudd TG. Heterotopic bone formation: clinical, laboratory, and imaging correlation. J Nucl Med 1985; 26: 125–32.
96. Schmidt SA, Kjaersgaard-Andersen P, Pedersen NW, et al. The use of indomethacin to prevent the formation of heterotopic bone after total hip replacement. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 1988; 70: 834–8.
97. Stover SL, Hahn HR, Miller JM. Disodium etidronate in the prevention of heterotopic ossification following spinal cord injury (preliminary report). Paraplegia 1976; 14: 146–56.
98. Hsieh JT, Wolfe DL, Miller WC, et al. Spasticity outcome measures in spinal cord injury: psychometric properties and clinical utility. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 86–95.
99. Maynard FM, Karunas RS, Waring WP. Epidemiology of spasticity following traumatic spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990; 71: 566–9.
100. Nance P, Schryvers O, Schmidt B, et al. Intrathecal baclofen therapy for adults with spinal spasticity: therapeutic efficacy and effect on hospital admissions. Can J Neurol Sci 1995; 22: 22–9.
101. Stolp-Smith KA, Wainberg MC. Antidepressant exacerbation of spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 339–42.
102. Cardenas DD, Mayo ME. Bacteriuria with fever after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1987; 68: 291–3.
103. Cardenas DD, Moore KN, Dannels-McClure A, et al. Intermittent catheterization with a hydrophilic-coated catheter delays urinary tract infections in acute spinal cord injury: a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. PM R 2011; 3: 408–17.
104. Bonica JJ. History of pain concepts and pain therapy. Mt Sinai J Med 1991; 58: 191–202.
105. Anke AG, Stenehjem AE, Stanghelle JK. Pain and life quality within 2 years of spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 555–9.
106. Cardenas DD, Turner JA, Warms CA, et al. Classification of chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 1708–14.
107. Cardenas DD, Warms CA, Turner JA, et al. Efficacy of amitriptyline for relief of pain in spinal cord injury: results of a randomized controlled trial. Pain 2002; 96: 365–73.
108. Rintala DH, Holmes SA, Courtade D, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of amitriptyline and gabapentin on chronic neuropathic pain in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 88: 1547–60.
109. Levendoglu F, Ogun CO, Ozerbil O, et al. Gabapentin is a first line drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2004; 29: 743–51.
110. Siddall PJ, Cousins MJ, Otte A, et al. (2006) Pregabalin in central neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury: a placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2006; 67: 1792–800.
111. Warms CA, Turner JA, Marshall HM, et al. Treatments for chronic pain associated with spinal cord injuries: many are tried, few are helpful. Clin J Pain 2002; 18: 154–63.
112. Rossier AB, Foo D, Shillito J, et al. Posttraumatic cervical syringomyelia. Incidence, clinical presentation, electrophysiological studies, syrinx protein and results of conservative and operative treatment. Brain 1985; 108: 439–61.
113. Schurch B, Wichmann W, Rossier AB. Post-traumatic syringomyelia (cystic myelopathy): a prospective study of 449 patients with spinal cord injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996; 60: 61–7.
114. Heldenberg D, Rubinstein A, Levtov O, et al. Serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations in young quadriplegic patients. Atherosclerosis 1981; 39: 163–7.
115. DeVivo MJ, Krause JS, Lammertse DP. Recent trends in mortality and causes of death among persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 1411–19.
116. Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in veterans with paraplegia or quadriplegia: a model of premature aging. Metabolism 1994; 43: 749–56.
117. Duckworth WC, Solomon SS, Jallepalli P, et al. Glucose intolerance due to insulin resistance in patients with spinal cord injuries. Diabetes 1980; 29: 906–10.
118. Schmitt JK, Schroeder DL. Endocrine and metabolic consequences of spinal cord injuries. In Lin VW, Cardenas, DD, Cutter NC, et al, eds. Spinal Cord Medicine Principles and Practice. New York, NY: Demos, 2003.
119. van Middendorp JJ, Hosman AJ, Donders AR, et al. A clinical prediction rule for ambulation outcomes after traumatic spinal cord injury: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet 2011; 377: 1004–10.
120. Zorner B, Blanckenhorn WU, Dietz V, et al. A clinical algorithm for improved prediction of ambulation and patient stratification after incomplete spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma 2010; 27: 241–52.
121. Bracken MB, Holford TR. Neurological and functional status 1 year after acute spinal cord injury: estimates of functional recovery in National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study II from results modeled in National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study III. J Neurosurg 2002; 96: 259–66.
122. Waters RL, Adkins RH, Yakura JS, et al. Motor and sensory recovery following incomplete tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75: 306–11.
123. Waters RL, Adkins RH, Yakura JS, et al. Motor and sensory recovery following incomplete paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75: 67–72.
124. Ditunno JF, Stover SL, Freed MM, et al. Motor recovery of the upper extremities in traumatic quadriplegia: a multicenter study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 73: 431–6.
125. McDonald JW, Sadowsky C. Spinal-cord injury. Lancet 2002; 359: 417–25.
126. Fawcett JW, Curt A, Steeves JD, et al. Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP panel: spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury and statistical power needed for therapeutic clinical trials. Spinal Cord 2007; 45: 190–205.
127. Steeves JD, Kramer JK, Fawcett JW, et al. Extent of spontaneous motor recovery after traumatic cervical sensorimotor complete spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011; 49: 257–65.
128. Whiteneck G, Adler C, Biddle AK, et al. Outcomes following traumatic spinal cord injury: clinical practice guidelines for health-care professionals. Clinical Practice Guidelines. Consort Spinal Cord Med Paralyzed Vets Am 1999; 1–291.
129. Hollar LD. Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction. In Trombly C, ed. Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practice Guidelines. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1995.
130. Waters RL, Sie IH, Gellman H, et al. Functional hand surgery following tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77: 86–94.
131. Dietz V. Body weight supported gait training: from laboratory to clinical setting. Brain Res Bull 2009; 78: I–VI.
132. Gorgey AS, Poarch H, Miller J, et al. Locomotor and resistance training restore walking in an elderly person with a chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. Neurorehabilitation 2010; 26: 127–33.
133. Lam T, Pauhl K, Krassioukov A, et al. Using robot-applied resistance to augment body-weight-supported treadmill training in an individual with incomplete spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 2011; 91: 143–51.
134. Phillips SM, Stewart BG, Mahoney DJ, et al. Body-weight-support treadmill training improves blood glucose regulation in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 716–24.
135. Soyupek F, Savas S, Ozturk O, et al. Effects of body weight supported treadmill training on cardiac and pulmonary functions in the patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2009; 22: 213–18.
136. Dobkin B, Barbeau H, Deforge D, et al. The evolution of walking-related outcomes over the first 12 weeks of rehabilitation for incomplete traumatic spinal cord injury: the multicenter randomized Spinal Cord Injury Locomotor Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007; 21: 25–35.
137. North NT. The psychological effects of spinal cord injury: a review. Spinal Cord 1999; 37: 671–9.
138. Folkman S. Personal control and stress and coping processes: a theoretical analysis. J Pers Soc Psychol 1984; 46: 839–52.
139. Galvin LR, Godfrey HP. The impact of coping on emotional adjustment to spinal cord injury (SCI): review of the literature and application of a stress appraisal and coping formulation. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 615–27.
140. Kennedy P, Duff J, Evans M, et al. Coping effectiveness training reduces depression and anxiety following traumatic spinal cord injuries. Br J Clin Psychol 2003; 42: 41–52.
141. Kennedy P, Duff J. Post traumatic stress disorder and spinal cord injuries. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 1–10.
142. Stiens SA, Bergman SB, Formal CS. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation. 4. Individual experience, personal adaptation, and social perspectives. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78: S65–72.
143. Post MW, de Witte LP, van Asbeck FW, et al. Predictors of health status and life satisfaction in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 395–401.
144. Putzke JD, Richards JS, Hicken BL, et al. Predictors of life satisfaction: a spinal cord injury cohort study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 555–61.
145. Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 1405–11.
146. Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Holford TR, et al. Administration of methylprednisolone for 24 or 48 hours or tirilazad mesylate for 48 hours in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. Results of the Third National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 1997; 277: 1597–1604.
147. Bracken MB, Holford TR. Effects of timing of methylprednisolone or naloxone administration on recovery of segmental and long-tract neurological function in NASCIS 2. J Neurosurg 1993; 79: 500–7.
148. Lee HC, Cho DY, Lee WY, et al. Pitfalls in treatment of acute cervical spinal cord injury using high-dose methylprednisolone: a retrospect audit of 111 patients. Surg Neurol 2007; 68: S37–41.
149. Citerio G, Cormio M, Sganzerla EP. [Steroids in acute spinal cord injury. An unproven standard of care]. Minerva Anestesiol 2002; 68: 315–20.
150. Hurlbert RJ. The role of steroids in acute spinal cord injury: an evidence-based analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2001; 26: S39–46.
151. Dobkin B, Apple D, Barbeau H, et al. Methods for a randomized trial of weight-supported treadmill training versus conventional training for walking during in patient rehabilitation after incomplete traumatic spinal cord injury. Rehabil Neural Repair 2003; 17: 153–67.
152. Hulsebosch CE, Hains BC, Waldrep K, et al. Bridging the gap: from discovery to clinical trials in spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma 2000; 17: 1117–28.
153. Barbeau H. Locomotor training in neurorehabilitation: emerging rehabilitation concepts. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2003; 17: 3–11.
154. Protas EJ, Holmes SA, Qureshy H, et al. Supported treadmill ambulation training after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 825–31.
155. Wernig A, Muller S, Nanassy A, et al. Laufband therapy based on ‘rules of spinal locomotion’ is effective in spinal cord injured persons. Eur J Neurosci 1995; 7: 823–9.
156. Wernig A, Nanassy A, Muller S. Maintenance of locomotor abilities following Laufband (treadmill) therapy in para- and tetraplegic persons: follow-up studies. Spinal Cord 1998; 36: 744–9.
157. Barbeau H, Norman KE. The effect of noradrenergic drugs on the recovery of walking after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2003; 41: 137–43.
158. Dobkin BH, Apple D, Barbeau H, et al. Methods for a randomized trial of weight-supported treadmill training versus conventional training for walking during inpatient rehabilitation after incomplete traumatic spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2003; 17: 153–67.
159. Kirshblum S. New rehabilitation interventions in spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2004; 27: 342–50.
160. Field-Fote EC. Spinal cord control of movement: implications for locomotor rehabilitation following spinal cord injury. Phys Ther 2000; 80: 477–84.
161. Prochazka A, Mushahwar V, Yakovenko S. Activation and coordination of spinal motoneuron pools after spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Res 2002; 137: 109–24.
162. Wolpaw JR, Tennissen AM. Activity-dependent spinal cord plasticity in health and disease. Ann Rev Neurosci 2001; 24: 807–43.
163. Donovan-Hall MK, Burridge J, Dibb B, et al. The views of people with spinal cord injury about the use of functional electrical stimulation. Artif Organs 2011; 35: 204–11.
164. Field-Fote EC. Combined use of body weight support, functional electric stimulation, and treadmill training to improve walking ability in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 818–24.
165. Kapadia NM, Zivanovic V, Furlan JC, et al. Functional electrical stimulation therapy for grasping in traumatic incomplete spinal cord injury: randomized control trial. Artif Organs 2011; 35: 212–16.
166. Leeb R, Gubler M, Tavella M, et al. On the road to a neuroprosthetic hand: a novel hand grasp orthosis based on functional electrical stimulation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010: 146–9.
167. Thrasher TA, Popovic MR. Functional electrical stimulation of walking: function, exercise and rehabilitation. Ann Readapt Med Phys 2008; 51: 452–60.
168. Creasey GH, Ho CH, Triolo RJ, et al. Clinical applications of electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2004; 27: 365–75.
169. Rupp R, Gerner HJ. Neuroprosthetics of the upper extremity – clinical application in spinal cord injury and future perspectives. Biomed Tech (Berl) 2004; 49: 93–8.
170. Mulcahey MJ, Betz RR, Kozin SH, et al. Implantation of the Freehand System during initial rehabilitation using minimally invasive techniques. Spinal Cord 2004; 42: 146–55.
171. Davis SE, Mulcahey MJ, Smith BT, et al. Self-reported use of an implanted FES hand system by adolescents with tetraplegia. J Spinal Cord Med 1998; 21: 220–26.
172. Taylor P, Esnouf J, Hobby J. Pattern of use and user satisfaction of neuro-control freehand system. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 156–60.
173. Taylor P, Esnouf J, Hobby J. The functional impact of the Freehand System on tetraplegic hand function. Clinical results. Spinal Cord 2002; 40: 560–6.
174. Peckham PH, Keith MW, Kilgore KL, et al. Efficacy of an implanted neuroprosthesis for restoring hand grasp in tetraplegia: a multicenter study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 1380–8.
175. Glaser RM. Physiology of functional electrical stimulation-induced exercise: basic science perspective. J Neurol Rehabil 1991; 5: 49–61.
176. Gormann PH. Functional electrical stimulation. In Lin VW, Cardenas DD, Cutter NC, et al., eds. Spinal Cord Medicine, Principles and Practice. New York, NY: Demos, 2003.
177. Johnston TE, Finson RL, Smith BT, et al. Functional electrical stimulation for augmented walking in adolescents with incomplete spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2003; 26: 390–400.
178. Spadone R, Merati G, Bertocchi E, et al. Energy consumption of locomotion with orthosis versus Parastep-assisted gait: a single case study. Spinal Cord 2003; 41: 97–104.
179. Winchester P, Carollo JJ, Habasevich R. Physiologic costs of reciprocal gait in FES assisted walking. Paraplegia 1994; 32: 680–6.
180. Brindley GS. The first 500 patients with sacral anterior root stimulator implants: general description. Paraplegia 1994; 32: 795–805.
181. Creasey GH, Dahlberg JE. Economic consequences of an implanted neuroprosthesis for bladder and bowel management. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 1520–25.
182. Creasey GH, Grill JH, Korsten M, et al. An implantable neuroprosthesis for restoring bladder and bowel control to patients with spinal cord injuries: a multicenter trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 1512–9.
183. Kachourbos MJ, Creasey GH. Health promotion in motion: improving quality of life for persons with neurogenic bladder and bowel using assistive technology. Sci Nurs 2000; 17: 125–9.
184. Martens FM, den Hollander PP, Snoek GJ, et al. Quality of life in complete spinal cord injury patients with a Brindley bladder stimulator compared to a matched control group. Neurourol Urodyn 2011; 30: 551–5.
185. Kutzenberger J, Domurath B, Sauerwein D. Spastic bladder and spinal cord injury: seventeen years of experience with sacral deafferentation and implantation of an anterior root stimulator. Artif Organs 2005; 29: 239–41.
186. Burks FN, Bui DT, Peters KM. Neuromodulation and the neurogenic bladder. Urol Clin North Am 2010; 37: 559–65.
187. Robin S, Sawan M, Abdel-Gawad M, et al. Implantable stimulation system dedicated for neural selective stimulation. Med Biol Eng Comput 1998; 36: 490–2.
188. Blight AR. Axonal physiology of chronic spinal cord injury in the cat: intracellular recording in vitro. Neuroscience 1983; 10: 1471–86.
189. McDonald JW, Becker D, Sadowsky CL, et al. Late recovery following spinal cord injury. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 2002; 97: 252–65.
190. Britell CW, Hammond MC. Spinal cord injury. In Hays RM, Kraft GH, Stolov WC, eds. Chronic Disease and Disability. New York, NY: Demos Medical Publishing, 1994; 144.