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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: May 2015

Appendix A - Descriptions of categories of democracy assistance

from Part IV - Appendices and references


This appendix provides fuller descriptions of the twenty categories of democracy assistance. I have used these categories throughout the book as a way of classifying and coding democracy-assistance programs.

Business: These projects promote business, private enterprise, free market economies, and entrepreneurship. They include working with chambers of commerce, offering training and networking opportunities to would-be business leaders, disseminating information about free enterprise, and supporting research and education on related topics.

Civic education: These projects inculcate democratic values and responsibilities among ordinary citizens. They include seminars that educate the public (and often, but not always, youth) about human rights, citizenship, and democratic values and programs that supply civic education materials to teachers and schools.

Civil society (general): These projects support the capacity and efforts of civil society organizations that are voluntary civic and social organizations. They include holding advocacy trainings for civil society leaders, publicizing civil society actors in the media, supporting events hosted by civil society organizations, and offering networking opportunities to civil society organizations. These projects refer to general civil society projects rather than efforts that primarily target business leaders, trade unions, women, or youth.

Conflict resolution: These projects promote conflict resolution and peace under the umbrella of promoting democracy. They include holding training to reduce violent political actions, supporting peace agreements, and promoting reconciliation and co-existence across ethnic, religious, and racial lines.

Constitutions: These projects support constitution-writing and constitutional reform. They include supporting constituent assemblies, disseminating draft constitutions, providing technical assistance (for example, on legal and historical issues related to constitutions), and supporting civil society organizations’ participation in the constitutional process.

Dissidents: These projects foster the exchange of democratic ideas among dissidents and intellectuals. They include supporting literary publications, translating and disseminating key democratic texts or textbooks, and sponsoring conferences that promote the exchange of information about democracy. They support individuals that are activists (potentially abroad or underground) or democratic pioneers in the country, or both.[…]