Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Access
  • Open access
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: December 2019

Chapter 17 - SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals – Focus on Forest Finance and Partnerships

  • View HTML
    • Send chapter to Kindle

      To send this chapter to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Available formats
      ×

      Send chapter to Dropbox

      To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Available formats
      ×

      Send chapter to Google Drive

      To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Available formats
      ×

Summary

Successful attainment of SDG17 is essential for implementing the other 16 SDGs, all of which depend upon secure means of implementation and durable partnerships. Funding for forests from ODA and other sources has trended upwards since 2000, providing reason for cautious optimism. However, REDD+ finance is declining. Private sector investment remains important. The idea of impact investment, which aims to solve pressing environmental and social problems while providing a return for investors, could make a significant contribution to the SDGs. However, not all sustainable development finance promotes forest conservation. Increasing funding for agricultural production often incentivises the conversion of forests to agricultural land while generating deforestation. The policy of zero net deforestation (ZND) is leading to the creation of partnerships to promote deforestation-free commodity supply chains for four forest risk commodities (palm oil, soy, beef and timber). Some innovative partnerships have been created to promote sustainable development involving intergovernmental organisations, the private sector, research institutes, NGOs and grass roots organisations. However, such partnerships exist within a neoliberal global economic order in which there are net financial flows from the Global South to the Global North that negate financial flows for sustainable development.

Abram, N. K., Meijaard, E., Wilson, K. A. et al. 2017. Oil Palm – community conflict mapping in Indonesia: A case for better community liaison in planning for development initiatives. Applied Geography 78:3344.
Accountability Framework 2018. Overview of the Accountability Framework. Available at: https://accountability-framework.org/framework/ (Accessed 8 December 2018).
Acheampong, M., Ertem, F. C., Kappler, B. and Neubauer, P. 2017. In pursuit of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 7: Will biofuels be reliable? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75:927–37.
AGF 2012. 2012 Study on Forest Financing. Unpublished report. Available at: www.un.org/esa/forests/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/AGF_Study_July_2012.pdf (Accessed 23 July 2019).
Amazon Fund 2017. Amazon Fund/Purposes and management. Available at: www.amazonfund.gov.br/en/home/ (Accessed 23 July 2019).
Andonova, L. B. and Levy, M. A. 2003. Franchising global governance: Making sense of the Johannesburg Type II Partnerships. In Stokke, O. S. and Thommessen, O. B. (eds.) Yearbook of International Co-operation on Environment and Development. London: Earthscan, pp. 1932.
APFNet 2015. Assessment of progress towards the APEC 2020 forest cover goal: Synthesis of economy reports and additional research. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House.
Arévalo, E. B. and Ros-Tonen, M. A. F. 2009. Discourses, power negotiations and Indigenous political organization in forest partnerships: The case of Selva de Matavén, Colombia. Human Ecology 37:733–47.
Arima, E., Barreto, P., Araujo, E. and Soares-Filho, B. 2014. Public policies can reduce tropical deforestation: Lessons and challenges from Brazil. Land Use Policy 41:465–73.
Besseau, P., Graham, S. and Christophersen, T. (eds.) 2018. Restoring forests and landscapes: The key to a sustainable future. Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration. Available at: www.forestlandscaperestoration.org/sites/forestlandscaperestoration.org/files/resources/GPFLR_FINAL%2027Aug.pdf (Accessed 4 December 2018).
Biermann, F., Chan, M-S., Mert, A. and Pattberg, P. 2007. Multi-stakeholder partnerships for sustainable development: Does the promise hold? Paper presented at 2007 Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. 24–26 May.
Boucher, D. 2008. Estimating the cost and potential of reducing emissions from deforestation, Briefing Paper 1, Tropical Forests and Climate. Washington, DC: Union of Concerned Scientists. Available at: www.ucsusa.org/sites/default/files/legacy/assets/documents/clean_energy/Briefing-1-REDD-costs.pdf (Accessed 23 July 2019).
Business and Sustainable Development Commission 2017. Better business better world, January. Available at: http://report.businesscommission.org/uploads/BetterBiz-BetterWorld_170215_012417.pdf (Accessed 27 November 2018).
Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership 2018. The Banking Environment Initiative (BEI) and Consumer Goods Forum (CGF)’s ‘Soft Commodities’ Compact. Available at: www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/business-action/sustainable-finance/banking-environment-initiative/programme/sustainable-agri-supply-chains/soft-commodities (Accessed 26 November 2018).
Castrén, T., Katila, M., Lindroos, K. and Salmi, J. 2014. Private financing for sustainable forest management and forest products in developing countries: Trends and drivers. Washington, DC: Program on Forests (PROFOR).
CCAFS 2017. Power of partnerships: Annual Report 2016. Wageningen, Netherlands: CGIAR Research Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Available at: https://ccafs.cgiar.org/publications/annual-report-2016-power-partnerships#.Ww6urViWzmQ (Accessed 8 April 2018).
Centre for Applied Research – Norwegian School of Economics, Global Financial Integrity, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Instituto de Estudos Socioeconômicos, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research 2015. Financial flows and tax havens: Combining to limit the lives of billions of people. Available at: www.gfintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Financial_Flows-final.pdf (Accessed 28 November 2018).
CFU (Climate Funds Update) 2017. Data dashboard. Available at: www.climatefundsupdate.org/data (Accessed 31 January 2018).
Climate Focus 2016. Progress on the New York Declaration on Forests – Achieving collective forest goals. Updates on Goals 1–10. Prepared by Climate Focus in cooperation with the NYDF Assessment Coalition with support from the Climate and Land Use Alliance and the Tropical Forest Alliance 2020. Available at: www.climatefocus.com/sites/default/files/2016-Updates-on-Goals-1–10-Report.pdf (Accessed 27 May 2018).
Climate Focus 2017. Progress on the New York Declaration on Forests. Finance for forests. Goals 8 and 9 Assessment Report. Prepared by Climate Focus in cooperation with the New York Declaration on Forest Assessment Partners with support from the Climate and Land Use Alliance, October. Available at: https://climatefocus.com/sites/default/files/NYDF%20report%202017%20FINAL.pdf (Accessed 24 November 2018).
Colchester, M., Anderson, P., Nelson, J. et al. 2016. How can ‘zero deforestation’ policies accommodate the rights and livelihoods of local communities and Indigenous peoples? Lessons from the field. Paper presented at the 2016 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, 14–18 March. Available at: www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/news/2016/02/LandConference2016Colchester_356.pdf (Accessed 27 May 2018).
Curtis, M. and Jones, T. 2017. Honest Accounts 2017: How the world profits from Africa’s wealth. Research funded by Global Justice Now. Building on previous work by Health Poverty Action and partners. 2nd. ed. July. Available at: www.globaljustice.org.uk/sites/default/files/files/resources/honest_accounts_2017_web_final_updated.pdf (Accessed 9 September 2018).
Curtis, P. G., Slay, C. M., Harris, N. L., Tyukavina, A. and Hansen, M. C. 2018. Classifying drivers of global forest loss. Science 361:1108–11.
DANA 2011. International timberlands ownership and investment review. Rotorua, New Zealand: DANA.
Derber, C. 2002. People before profit: The new globalisation in an age of terror, big money and economic crisis. London: Souvenir Press.
Donofrio, S., Rothrock, P. and Leonard, J. 2017. Supply change: Tracking corporate commitments to deforestation-free supply chains. Washington, DC: Forest Trends.
Donoso Game, A. 2018. De deudores a acreedores. In Delen, B. (ed.) Territorios y recursos naturales: el saqueo versus el buen vivir. Quito: Alai, pp. 32–8.
Duncan, E. 2006. Payments for environmental services: An equitable approach for reducing poverty and conserving nature. Zeist, Netherlands: WWF.
Eba’a Atyi, R., Lescuyer, G., Ngouhouo Poufoun, J. and Moulendè Fouda, T. (eds.) 2013. Étude de l’importance économique et sociale du secteur forestier et faunique au Cameroun: Rapport final. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.
Environmental Defense Fund and Forest Trends 2018. Mapping forest finance: A landscape of available sources of finance for REDD+ and Climate Action in Forests. February. Available at www.edf.org/sites/default/files/documents/EDF101-REDD%2BFinance.pdf (Accessed 17 November 2018).
FAO 2010. Global forest resources assessment 2010: Main report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Rome: FAO.
FCPF 2017. About FCPF. Available at: www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/about-fcpf-0 (Accessed 8 December 2017).
Fearnside, P. 2017. Business as usual: A resurgence of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Yale Environment 360. Available at: https://e360.yale.edu/features/business-as-usual-a-resurgence-of-deforestation-in-the-brazilian-amazon (Accessed 6 March 2018).
Forest Trends 2017. State of private investment in conservation 2016: A landscape assessment of an emerging marke. Washington, DC: Forest Trends. Available at: www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_5474.pdf# (Accessed 17 December 2017).
GEF 2015. Taking deforestation out of commodity supply chains. A GEF integrated approach pilot. Washington DC: GEF. Available at: www.thegef.org/sites/default/files/publications/GEF_SDG_Deforestation_r6_1.pdf (Accessed 22 November 2017).
GEF 2017. $400 million fund launched in Davos to stop tropical deforestation and boost farming. GEF News. Available at: www.thegef.org/news/400-million-fund-launched-davos-stop-tropical-deforestation-and-boost-farming (Accessed 22 November 2017).
Gerasimchuk, I., Bridle, R., Beaton, C. and Charles, C. 2012. State of play on biofuel subsidies: Are policies ready to shift? Global Subsidies Initiative Research Report. Geneva: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
GFI 2015. Financial flows and tax havens: Combining to limit the lives of billions of people. December. Available at: www.gfintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Financial_Flows-final.pdf (Accessed 31 January 2018).
Gill, S. 2002. Power and resistance in the new world order. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Glauner, R., Rinehart, J. A. and D’Anieri, P. 2012. Can timberland investments in emerging markets secure forest sustainability? European Tropical Forest Research Network (ETFRN) News 54:39.
Global Investor Impact Survey 2018. Annual investor impact survey 2018. USAID and UKAid, June, 8th ed. Available at: https://thegiin.org/assets/2018_GIIN_Annual_Impact_Investor_Survey_webfile.pdf (Accessed 17 November 2018).
Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration 2017. About the partnership. Available at: www.forestlandscaperestoration.org/about-partnership (Accessed 6 March 2018).
Gottiniaux, P., Munevar, D., Sanabria, A. and Toussaint, E. 2015. World debt figures 2015. Committee for the Abolition of Illegitimate Debt (CADTM). Available at: www.cadtm.org/World-Debt-Figures-2015 (Accessed 9 September 2018).
Graham, P., Thoumi, G., Drazen, E. and Seymour, F. 2018. Mining global financial data to increase transparency and reduce drivers of deforestation, World Resources Institute Working Paper, Washington, DC. Available at: www.wri.org/publication/ending-tropical-deforestation-mining-global-financial-data-increase-transparency (Accessed 18 November 2018).
Hickel, J. 2017. The divide: A brief guide to global inequality and its solutions. London: William Heinemann.
Holopainen, J. and Wit, M. (eds.) 2008. Financing sustainable forest management. Wageningen, Netherlands: Tropenbos International.
Humphreys, D. 2006. Logjam: Deforestation and the crisis of global governance. London: Earthscan.
Humphreys, D. 2009. Working across boundaries: Science-policy interfaces and international forest politics. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 6(3):163–74.
ILO 2017. Decent work in forestry: Decent work in the rural economy – policy guidance notes. ILO, Geneva. Available at: www.worldcat.org/title/decent-work-in-forestry-decent-work-in-the-rural-economy-policy-guidance-notes/oclc/935517206&referer=library_profile_recentitems&returnRegistryId=&libraryname=International%20Labour%20Office (Accessed 23 July 2019).
ILO 2018. Decent work and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available at: www.ilo.org/global/topics/sdg-2030/lang–en/index.htm (Accessed 23 July 2019).
Jopke, P. and Schoneveld, G. C. 2018. Corporate commitments to zero deforestation: An evaluation of externality problems and implementation gaps, Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Occasional Paper 181. Available at: www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-181.pdf (Accessed 17 November 2018).
Kar, D. and Spanjers, J. 2015. Illicit financial flows from developing countries: 2004–2013. Washington, DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available at: www.gfintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/IFF-Update_2015-Final-1.pdf (6 January 2018).
Karsenty, A., Roda, J. M., Milol, A. and Fochivé, E. 2006. Audit économique et financier du secteur forestier au Cameroun. Rapport final. Economic audit carried out for the Cameroonian Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Katila, P., de Jong, W., Galloway, G. Pokorny, B. and Pacheco, P. 2017. Building on synergies: Harnessing community and smallholder forestry for Sustainable Development Goals (Policy Brief). Available at: www.iufro.org/news/article/2017/05/08/harnessing-the-potential-of-community-and-smallholder-forestry-for-sustainable-development-goals/ (Accessed 8 December 2018).
Kissinger, G. 2015. Fiscal incentives for agricultural commodity production: Options to forge compatibility with REDD+. UN-REDD Programme Policy Brief 7.
Kissinger, G., Herold, M. and de Sy, V. 2012. Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation: A synthesis report for REDD+ policymakers. Vancouver: Lexeme Consulting.
Lawson, S., Blundell, A., Cabarle, B. et al. 2014. Consumer goods and deforestation: An analysis of the extent and nature of illegality in forest conversion for agriculture and timber plantations. Forest Trends and UK Aid. Available at: www.forest-trends.org/publications/consumer-goods-and-deforestation/ (Accessed 23 July 2019).
Llistar Bosch, D. 2009. Anticooperación. Interferencias Norte-Sur. Los problemas del Sur Global no se resuelven con más ayuda internacional. Antrazyt 309. Barcelona: Icaria Editorial.
Lovera, S. 2017. SDG15: Trends in the privatization and corporate capture of biodiversity. In Civil Society Reflection Group on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (ed.) Spotlight on Sustainable Development 2017: Reclaiming Policies for the Public. Privatization, Partnerships, Corporate Capture and their Impact on Sustainability and Inequality. Available at: www.2030spotlight.org/sites/default/files/download/spotlight_170626_final_web.pdf (Accessed 27 November 2017).
McFarland, W., Whitley, S. and Kissinger, G. 2015. Subsidies to key commodities driving forest loss: implications for private climate finance. ODI Working Paper. London: ODI. Available at: www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/9577.pdf (Accessed 27 November 2017).
Mpenya, H. T. A., Metseyem, C. and Epo, B. N. 2016. Natural resources and capital flight in Cameroon. African Development Review 28:8899.
Myers, N. 1981. The hamburger connection: How Central America’s forests became North America’s hamburgers. Ambio 10:38.
Nakhooda, S., Watson, C. and Schalatek, L. 2016. The global climate finance architecture. Climate Finance Fundamentals 2. Climate Funds Update. Washington DC: Overseas Development Institute [ODI] and Heinrich Boll Siftung North America (HBS). Available at: www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11021.pdf (Accessed 27 May 2018).
Nepstad, D., McGrath, D., Stickler, C. et al. 2014. Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains. Science 344(6188):1118–23.
Norman, M. and Nakhooda, S. 2014. The state of REDD finance. Working Paper 378. Washington DC: Centre for Global Development and ODI. Available at: www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/CGD-Norman-Nakhooda-Climate-Forests-5-REDD-Finance.pdf (Accessed 23 July 2019).
OECD 2014a. Agricultural policies and support: Producer and consumer support estimates database [online]. Available at: www.oecd.org/tad/agricultural-policies/producerandconsumersupportestimatesdatabase.htm (Accessed 19 August 2014).
OECD 2014b. Illicit financial flows from developing countries: Measuring OECD responses. Paris: OECD.
OECD 2017a. QWIDS Query Wizard for International Development Statistics Database. Agriculture and Rural Development Official Development Assistance. Available at: https://bit.ly/2K3nbrw (Accessed 17 October 2017).
OECD 2017b. Creditor Reporting System Database. Available at: http://stats.oecd.org/ (Accessed 12 December 2017).
OECD 2018a. Development aid stable in 2017 with more sent to poorest countries. Available at: www.oecd.org/development/development-aid-stable-in-2017-with-more-sent-to-poorest-countries.htm (Accessed 8 December 2018).
OECD 2018b. Creditor Reporting System Database. Available at: http://stats.oecd.org/ (Accessed 6 November 2018).
Pagiola, S., Arcenas, A. and Platais, G. 2005. Can payment for environmental services help reduce poverty? World Development 33(2):237–53.
Paramaribo Initiative 2008. Country-led initiative on financing for sustainable forest management in support of the UN Forum on Forests, 8–12 September 2008, Paramaribo, Suriname. Paper circulated at the United Nations Forum on Forests, 2008.
Partnership for Forests 2017. From commitment to implementation: The African palm oil initiative enters a new phase. Available at: https://partnershipsforforests.com/2017/03/09/commitment-implementation-africa-palm-oil-initiative-enters-new-phase/ (Accessed 14 September 2018).
Partnership for Forests 2018. The Amsterdam Declarations. Available at: https://partnershipsforforests.com/partnerships-projects/the-amsterdam-declarations/ (Accessed 26 November 2018).
Pereira Goncalves, M., Panjer, M., Greenberg, T. S. and Magrath, W. B. 2012. Justice for forests: Improving criminal justice efforts to combat illegal logging. Washington, DC: World Bank. Available at: https://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTFINANCIALSECTOR/Resources/Illegal_Logging.pdf (Accessed 6 December 2018).
Persson, M., Henders, S. and Kastner, T. 2014. Trading forests: Quantifying the contribution of global commodity markets to emissions from tropical deforestation. CGD Working Paper 384. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
PRI 2018. PRI and Ceres expand Sustainable Forest Initiative to include dialogue with companies in soy value chain. 9 July. Available at: www.unpri.org/news-and-press/pri-and-ceres-expand-sustainable-forest-initiative-to-include-dialogue-with-companies-in-soy-value-chain/3386.article (Accessed 25 November 2018).
Reij, C. and Winterbottom, R. 2017. Can we restore 350 million hectares by 2030? World Resources Institute Blog. Available at: www.wri.org/blog/2017/02/can-we-restore-350-million-hectares-2030 (Accessed 27 May 2018).
Roberts, T. and Weikmans, R. 2016. Roadmap to where? Is the ‘$100 billion by 2020’ pledge from Copenhagen still realistic? Washington, DC: Brookings. Available at: www.brookings.edu/blog/planetpolicy/2016/10/20/roadmap-to-where-is-the-100-billion-by-2020-pledge-from-copenhagen-still-realistic/ (Accessed 17 December 2017).
Rogerson, S. 2017. Forest 500 – Achieving 2020: How can the private sector meet global goals of eliminating commodity-driven deforestation? Global Canopy. Available at: www.globalcanopy.org/publications/achieving-2020-how-can-private-sector-meet-global-goals-eliminating-commodity-driven (Accessed 18 November 2018).
Salvini, G., Herold, M., De Sy, V., Kissinger, G., Brockhaus, M. and Skutsch, M. 2014. How countries link REDD+ interventions to drivers in their readiness plans: Implications for monitoring systems [online]. Environmental Research letters 9. Available at: www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/articles/ABrockhaus1401.pdf (Accessed 31 May 2018).
SDIA (Sustainable Development in Action) 2013. Voluntary commitments and partnerships for sustainable development. Special Report of the SD in Action Newsletter, Issue 1, July.
SDIA 2015. Special report on voluntary multi-stakeholder partnerships and commitments for sustainable development. Sustainable Development in Action. Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1855SD%20in%20Action%20Report%202015.pdf (Accessed 8 January 2018).
SIDS 2014. SIDS Partnership Framework: Ensuring the full implementation of pledges and commitments through partnerships for small island developing states. Available at: http://sids2014.org/partnerships/ (Accessed 23 July 2019).
Silva-Chávez, G., Schaap, B. and Breitfeller, J. 2015. REDD+ finance flows 2009–2014: Trends and lessons learned in REDDX countries. Washington DC: Forest Trends. Available at: www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_5029.pdf (Accessed 17 December 2017).
Singer, B. 2016. Financing sustainable forest management in developing countries: The case for a holistic approach. International Forestry Review 18(1):96109.
Singer, B. 2017. National forest financing strategies. PowerPoint presentation given at the national capacity-building workshop on forest financing in Madagascar, 2–6 October, Antananarivo, Madagascar (8 slides).
Singer, B. and Giessen, L. 2017. Towards a donut regime? Domestic actors, climatization and the hollowing-out of the international forests regime in the Anthropocene. Forest Policy and Economics 79:6979.
TFA (Tropical Forest Alliance) 2018a. The roadmap to financing deforestation-free commodities. Available at: www.weforum.org/whitepapers/the-roadmap-to-financing-deforestation-free-commodities (Accessed 18 November 2018).
TFA 2018b. Emerging market consumers and deforestation: Risks and opportunities of growing demand for soft commodities in China and beyond. Available at: www.tfa2020.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/47530_Emerging-markets_consumers_and_deforestation_report_2018.pdf (Accessed 23 July 2019).
Tomaselli, I., Hirakuri, S. R. and Penno Saraiva, G. B. 2012. Increasing the competitiveness of the Brazilian forest sector. European Tropical Forest Research Network (ETFRN) News 54:4250.
UN 2014. Report of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing. Document A/69/315. Available at: www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/315&Lang=E (Accessed 27 November 2017).
UN 2015. Paris Agreement. Bonn, Germany: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Available at: http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/application/pdf/english_paris_agreement.pdf (Accessed 27 November 2017).
UN 2016. The Sustainable Development Goals report 2016. Available at: www.un.org.lb/Library/Assets/The-Sustainable-Development-Goals-Report-2016-Global.pdf (Accessed 17 January 2018).
UN 2017. The Sustainable Development Goals report 2017. Available at: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/files/report/2017/TheSustainableDevelopmentGoalsReport2017.pdf (Accessed 6 January 2018).
UNCTAD 2014. World Investment Report – Investing in the SDGs: an action plan [online]. Geneva: United Nations. Available at: https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/wir2014_en.pdf (Accessed 8 December 2018).
UNCTAD 2016. Trade misinvoicing in primary commodities in developing countries: The cases of Chile Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia. Geneva: United Nations.
UN Environment 2016. How to attract investment to sustainable management of forests and REDD+: Experts from 12 countries met in Panama. UN-REDD Programme. Available at: www.un-redd.org/single-post/2017/07/11/How-to-attract-investment-to-sustainable-management-of-forests-and-REDD-experts-from-12-countries-meet-in-Panama (Accessed 17 October 2017).
UNEP 2015. Bank and investor risk policies on soft commodities: A framework to evaluate deforestation and forest degradation in the agricultural value chain, July. Available at: www.uncclearn.org/sites/default/files/inventory/unep07092015.pdf (Accessed 18 November 2018).
Verchot, L. 2015. CIFOR’s REDD+ research. Presentation at the Paris Global Landscapes Forum, 5–6 December, Paris, France. Available at: www.landscapes.org/cifors-redd-research/ (Accessed 27 November 2017).
Visseren-Hamakers, I. J. 2013. Partnerships and sustainable development: The lessons learned from international biodiversity governance. Environmental Policy and Governance 23:145–60.
Visseren-Hamakers, I. J., Arts, B. and Glasbergen, P. 2011. Interaction management by partnerships: The case of biodiversity and climate change. Global Environmental Politics 11(4):89107.
Visseren-Hamakers, I. J. and Glasbergen, P. 2006. Partnerships in forest governance. Global Environmental Change 17(3–4):408–19.
Visseren-Hamakers, I. J., Leroy, P. and Glasbergen, P. 2012. Conservation partnerships and biodiversity governance: Fulfilling governance through interaction. Sustainable Development 20:264–75.
Von Moltke, K. 2002. Governments and international civil society in sustainable development: A framework. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 2:341–59.
Watson, C., Patel, S. and Schalatek, L. 2016. Climate finance thematic briefing: REDD+ finance. Climate Funds Update. Climate Finance Fundamentals 5. Available at: www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource-documents/11030.pdf (Accessed 27 May 2018).
WBCSD 2018. Forest Solutions Group: Shared commitment, concerted action and transparent progress. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Available at: www.wbcsd.org/Sector-Projects/Forest-Solutions-Group (Accessed 5 December 2018).
World Bank 2006. Strengthening forest law enforcement and governance: Addressing a systemic constraint to sustainable development. Report No. 36638-GLB. Washington, DC: World Bank. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTFORESTS/Resources/WB_Rpt_36638_Forest_Law.pdf?resourceurlname=WB_Rpt_36638_Forest_Law.pdf (Accessed 17 December 2017).
World Bank 2008. Forest Source Book: Practical Guidance for Sustaining Forests in Development Cooperation. Washington DC: World Bank.
World Bank 2013. Forest law enforcement and governance. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTFORESTS/Resources/WB_Rpt_36638_Forest_Law.pdf?resourceurlname=WB_Rpt_36638_Forest_Law.pdf (Accessed 6 December 2018).
WRI 2017a. Initiative 20x20. World Resources Institute. Available at: www.wri.org/our-work/project/initiative-20x20/restoration-commitments#project-tabs (Accessed 8 December 2017).
WRI 2017b. Global Forest Watch Commodities. www.wri.org/resources/websites/global-forest-watch-commodities (Accessed 8 December 2017).
Wunder, S. 2008. Payment for environmental services and the poor: Concepts and preliminary evidence. Environment and Development Economics 13:279–97.
WWF 2009. Zero net deforestation by 2020. Available at: wwf.panda.org/?181181/Zero-Net-Deforestation-for-2020 (Accessed 8 December 2017).