Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: February 2011

9 - Heat and mass transfer

Summary

Introduction

A great number of processes carried out in spouted beds require the application of different modes of heat and/or mass transfer. We may distinguish among the following modes:

Heat transfer, mass transfer, simultaneous heat and mass transfer – between fluid and particles,

Heat transfer between wall and bed, and

Heat transfer between submerged object and bed.

For each mode, transfer mechanisms are examined; then experimental findings and, in some cases, theoretical studies are discussed.

Between fluid and particles

Transfer mechanisms and models

Quite often, the basic assumption for analysis of heat or mass exchanged between fluid and particles is that heat is transferred to the particles under conditions of external control, neglecting heat transmission within the particles. For heat transfer in the absence of mass transfer, this is justified when the particle heat transfer Biot number is sufficiently small (e.g., <0.1) and the corresponding Fourier number exceeds 0.22. For simultaneous heat and mass transfer, such as when the particles are well wetted at the surface, the average temperature at the particle surfaces is substantially uniform, and external control again prevails.

Assuming plug flow conditions through the bed, the axial fluid temperature distribution can be described by a dimensionless function. Because the spouted bed consists of two distinct regions, with the average gas velocity in the spout being one or two orders of magnitude greater than that in the annulus, the decline of gas temperature in these two zones is quite different; it is slight in the spout and considerable in the annular zone.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Epstein, N. and Mathur, K. B.. Heat and mass transfer in spouted beds – a review. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 49 (1971), 467–476.
Mathur, K. B. and Epstein, N.. Spouted Beds (New York: Academic Press, 1974).
Kmiec, A.. Hydrodynamics of flows and heat transfer in spouted beds. Chem. Eng. J., 19 (1980), 189–200.
Kmiec, A.. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 53 (1975), 18–24.
Kmiec, A.. Rownoczesna wymiana ciepla i masy w ukladach fluidalnych fontannowych. Inz. Chem. (in Polish), 6 (1976), 497–516.
Kmiec, A.. Bed expansion and heat and mass transfer in fluidized beds. Scientific Papers of Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Heating Equipment of Wroclaw Technical University, No. 36, Monographs No. 19 (Wroclaw, Poland: Publishing House of Wroclaw University of Technology, 1980).
Oliveira, W. P., Freire, J. T., and Masarani, G.. Analogy between heat and mass transfer in three spouted bed zones during the drying of liquid materials. Drying Technol., 16 (1998), 1939–1955.
Kmiec, A., Englart, S., and Ludwinska, A.. Mass transfer during air humidification in spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 87 (2009), 163–168.
Jacob, M.. Heat Transfer (New York: Wiley, 1949), vol. 1, chapters 13, 20.
Devahastin, S., Mujumdar, A. S., and Raghavan, G. S. V.. Diffusion-controlled batch drying of particles in a novel rotating jet annular spouted bed. Drying Technol., 16 (1998), 525–543.
Markowski, A. S.. Drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 70 (1992), 938–944.
Feng, H., Tang, J., Cavalieri, R. P., and Plumb, O. A.. Heat and mass transport in microwave drying of porous materials in a spouted bed. AIChE J., 47 (2001), 1499–1512.
Jumah, R. Y. and Raghavan, G. S. V.. Analysis of heat and mass transfer during combined microwave-convective spouted-bed drying. Drying Technol., 19 (2001), 485–506.
Heyd, B., Broyart, B., Valdovinos-Tijerino, J. A., and Trystran, G.. Physical model of heat and mass transfer in a spouted bed coffee roaster. Drying Technol., 25 (2007), 1243–1248.
Ando, S., Maki, T., Nakagawa, Y., Namiki, N., Emi, H., and Otani, Y.. Analysis of the drying process of seed particles in a spouted bed with a draft tube. Adv. Powder Technol., 13 (2002), 73–91.
Niamnuy, C., Devahastin, S., Soponronnarit, S., and Raghavan, G. S. V.. Modeling coupled transport phenomena and mechanical deformation of shrimp during drying in a jet spouted bed dryer. Chem. Eng. Sci., 63 (2008), 5503–5512.
Szafran, R. G. and Kmiec, A.. CFD modeling of heat and mass transfer in a spouted bed dryer. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 43 (2004), 1113–1124.
Szafran, R. G. and Kmiec, A.. Point-by-point solution procedure for the computational fluid dynamics modeling of long-time batch drying. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (2005), 7892–7898.
Uemaki, O. and Kugo, M.. Heat transfer in spouted beds. Kagaku Kogaku, 31 (1967), 348–353.
Uemaki, O. and Kugo, M.. Mass transfer in spouted beds. Kagaku Kogaku, 32 (1968), 895–901.
El-Naas, M. H., Rognon, S., Legros, R., and Meyer, R. C.. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a spouted bed dryer. Drying Technol., 18 (2000), 323–340.
Reger, O., Romankov, P. G., and Rashkovskaya, N. B.. Drying of paste-like materials on inert bodies in a spouting bed. Zhurnal Prikladnoj Khimii (Leningrad), 40 (1967), 2276–2280.
Leontieva, A. I., Bryankin, K. V., Konovelov, V. I., and Utrobin, N. P.. Heat and mass transfer during drying of a liquid film from the surface of a single inert particle. Drying Technol., 20 (2008), 729–747.
Kucharski, J. and Hydrodynamics, A. Kmiec, heat and mass transfer during coating of tablets in a spouted bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 61 (1983), 435–439.
Kucharski, J.. Heat transfer in a spouted bed granulator. Hung. J. Ind.Chem., 17 (1989), 437–448.
Kmiec, A. and Kucharski, J.. Heat and mass transfer during coating of tablets in a spouted bed. Inz. Chem. i Procesowa, 1 (1993), 47–58.
Kmiec, A. and Jabarin, N. A.. Hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer during coating of rings in a spouted bed. In Proceedings of the 12th International Drying Symposium (IDS), ed. Kerkhof, P. J. A. M., Coumans, W. J., and Mooiweer, G. D.. (Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2000), CD-ROM, Paper No. 19, pp. 1–13.
Kmiec, A., Kucharski, J., and Mielczarski, S.. Hydrodynamics and kinetics during drying of coal in a spouted bed dryer. Proceedings of the 3rd International Drying Symposium, ed. Ashworth, J. C. (Wolverhampton, UK: Drying Research Ltd., 1982), Vol. 2, pp. 184–190.
Englart, S., Kmiec, A., and Ludwinska, A.. Heat transfer in sprayed spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 87 (2009), 185–192.
Kmiec, A. and Kmiec, G.. Kinetics of drying of microspherical particles in circulating fluidized beds. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Circulating Fluidized Beds, ed. Werther, J. (Frankfurt: DECHEMA, 1999), pp. 367–371.
Kilkis, B. and Kakac, S.. Heat and mass transfer in spouted beds. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media (Izmir, Turkey, 1990), pp. 835–862.
Dolidovich, A. F. and Efremtsev, V. S.. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer of spouting beds with a two-component (gas-solid) dispersing medium. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 61 (1983), 398–405.
Dolidovich, A. F. and Efremtsev, V. S.. Studies of spouted beds with small outlet-inlet cross-section ratios. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 61 (1983), 382–389.
Freitas, L. A. P. and Freire, J. T.. Heat transfer in spouted beds. Drying Technol., 11 (1993), 303–317.
Khoe, G. K. and Brakel, J.. Drying characteristics of a draft tube spouted bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 61 (1983), 411–418.
Claflin, J. K. and Fane, A. G.. Fluid mechanics, heat transfer and drying in spouted beds with draft tubes. In Drying '84, ed. Mujumdar, A. S. (New York: Hemisphere, 1984), pp. 137–141.
Freitas, L. A. P. and Freire, J. T.. Gas-to-particle heat transfer in the draft tube of a spouted bed. Drying Technol., 19 (2001), 1065–1082.
Nemeth, J., Pallai, E., Peter, M., and R. Toros, . Heat transfer in a novel type spouted bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 61 (1983), 406–410.
Chatterjee, A. and Diwekar, U.. Spout-fluid bed and spouted bed heat transfer model. In Drying '84, ed. Mujumdar, A. S. (New York: Hemisphere, 1984), pp. 142–150.
Dolidovich, A. F.. Hydrodynamics and interphase heat transfer in a swirled spouted bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 70 (1992), 930–937.
Akulich, P., Reyes, A., and Bubnovich, V.. Effect of peripheral gas jets on hydrodynamics and transfer phenomena of spouting beds. Powder Technol., 167 (2006), 141–148.
Martinez, L. A. O., Brennan, J. G., and Niranjan, K.. Drying of liquids in a spouted bed of inert particles: Heat transfer studies. J. Food Eng., 20 (1993), 135–148.
Oliveira, W. P. and Freire, J. T.. Analysis of evaporation rate in the spouted bed zones during drying of liquid materials using a three-region model. In Drying '96, ed. Strumillo, C. and Pakowski, Z., series ed. A. S. Mujumdar (Lodz, Poland: Drukarnia Papaj, 1996), vol. A, pp. 504–512.
Littman, H., Day, J. Y., and Morgan, M. H.. A model for the evaporation of water from large glass particles in pneumatic transport. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 78 (2000), 124–131.
Kudra, T., Mujumdar, A. S., and Raghavan, G. S. V.. Gas-to-particle heat transfer in two-dimensional spouted beds. Int. Comm. Heat and Mass Transfer, 16 (1989), 731–741.
Swasdisevi, T., Tanthapanichakoon, W., Charinpanitkul, T., Kawaguchi, T., Tanaka, T., and Tsuji, Y.. Prediction of gas-particle dynamics and heat transfer in a two-dimensional spouted bed. Adv. PowderTechnol., 16 (2005), 275–293.
Rocha, S. C. S., Taranto, O. P., and Ayub, G. E.. Aerodynamics and heat transfer during coating of tablets in two-dimensional spouted bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 73 (1995), 308–312.
Mickley, H. S. and Fairbanks, D. F.. Mechanism of heat transfer to fluidized beds. AIChE J., 1 (1955), 374–384.
Malek, M. A. and Lu, B. C. Y.. Heat transfer in spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 42 (1964), 14–20.
Klassen, J. and Gishler, P. E.. Heat transfer from column wall to bed in spouted, fluidized and packed systems. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 36 (1958), 12–18.
Chatterjee, A., Adusumilli, R. R. S., and Deshmukh, A. V.. Wall-to-bed heat transfer characteristics of spouted-fluid beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 61 (1983), 390–397.
Ghosh, B. and Osberg, G. L.. Heat transfer in water spouted beds. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 37 (1959), 205–207.
Brinn, M. S., Friedman, S. J., Gluckert, F. A., and Pigford, R. L.. Heat transfer to granular materials. Ind. Eng. Chem. 40 (1948), 1050–1061.
Higbie, R.. The rate of absorption of a pure gas into a still liquid during short periods of exposure. Trans. AIChE, 31 (1935), 365–389.
Zabrodsky, S. S. and Mikhalik, V. D.. The heat exchange of the spouting bed with a submerged heating surface. In Intensification of Transfer of Heat and Mass in Drying and Thermal Processes (Minsk, BSSR: Nauka i Technika, 1967), pp. 130–137.
Klimenko, Yu. G., Karpenko, V. G., and Rabinovich, M. I.. Heat exchange between the spouting bed and the surface of a spherical probe element. In Heat Physics and Technology (Kiev: Ukr. SSR Acad. of Sci., 1969), No. 15, pp. 81–84.
Macchi, A., Bi, H. T., Legros, R., and Chaouki, J.. An investigation of heat transfer from a vertical tube in a spouted bed. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 77 (1999), 45–53.
Robbins, P. T. and Fryer, P. J.. The spouted-bed roasting of barley: development of a predictive model for moisture and temperature. J. Food Eng., 59 (2003), 199–208.