Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: February 2011

19 - Catalytic reactors and their modeling


In an earlier review on modeling of catalytic gas–solid fluidized bed reactors, spouted beds were treated as a special case of fluidized beds, with the jet region extending to the upper free surface of the solids emulsion. The spout and the annulus are two well-distinguished zones, characterized by such different gas–solid contacting that they have been treated distinctly since the first approach for modeling spouted bed chemical reactors. The spout zone acts as a dilute vertical transport system, whereas the peripheral annulus has many similarities with a countercurrent downflow packed bed, the major peculiarity being gas percolation into the dense emulsion from the spout. Therefore, solids motion in a spouted bed is a major factor affecting mass and heat transfer, mixing, contacting, and hence the choice of reactor model. The solids can react (e.g., in combustion, where they are depleted over time), constitute inerts (e.g., sand diluting a solid fuel and regulating the system hydrodynamics, as well as providing a heat buffer), or act as a catalyst.

Successful design and operation of a reactor depend on the ability to predict the system behavior, especially the hydrodynamics, mixing of individual phases, heat and mass transfer rates, and kinetics of the reactions involved.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Marmo, L., Rovero, G., and Baldi, G.. Modelling of catalytic gas-solid fluidised bed reactors. Catal. Today, 52 (1999), 235–247.
Mathur, K. B. and Lim, C. J.. Vapour phase chemical reaction in spouted beds: a theoretical model. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1974), 789–797.
Mathur, K. B. and Epstein, N.. Spouted Beds (New York: Academic Press, 1974).
Mamuro, T. and Hattori, H.. Flow pattern of fluid in spouted beds. J. Chem. Eng. Jap., 52 (1968), 1–5.
Hadzismajlovic, Dz. E., Zdanski, F. K., Vukovic, D. V., Grbavcic, Z. B., and Littman, H.. A theoretical model of the first order isothermic catalytic reaction in spouted and spout-fluid bed. Presented at CHISA '78 Congress (Prague, 1978), Paper No C4.5.
Piccinini, N., Grace, J. R., and Mathur, K. B.. Vapour phase chemical reaction in spouted beds: verification of theory. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1979), 1257–1263.
Rovero, G., Piccinini, N., Grace, J. R., Epstein, N., and Brereton, C. M. H.. Gas phase solid-catalysed chemical reaction in spouted beds. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1983), 557–566.
Littman, H., Narayanan, P. V., Tomlins, A. H., and Friedman, M. L.. A complete theoretical model for a first order isothermal catalytic reaction in a spouted bed. AIChE Symp. Ser. No. 205, 52 (1981), 174–183.
Smith, K. J., Arkun, Y., and Littman, H. Studies on modeling and control of spouted bed reactors – I. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1982), 567–579.
Arkun, Y., Smith, K. J., and Sawyer, G.. Studies on modelling and control of spouted bed reactors – II. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1983), 897–909.
Brereton, C. M. H. and Grace, J. R.. A note on comparison of spouted bed reactor models. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1984), 1315–1317.
Viswanathan, K.. Semicompartmental model for spouted bed reactors. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 52 (1984), 623–631.
Hook, B. D., Littman, H., Morgan, M. H. III, and Arkun, Y.. A priori modelling of an adiabatic spouted bed catalytic reactor. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 52 (1992), 966–968.
Dudas, J., Seitz, O., and Jelemensky, L.. Chemical reaction in spouted beds. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1993), 3104–3107.
Limtrakul, S., Boonsrirat, A., and Vatanatham, T.. DEM modeling and simulation of a catalytic gas-solid fluidized bed reactor: a spouted bed as a case study. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (2004), 5225–5231.
Olazar, M., José, M. J. San, Zabala, G., and Bilbao, J.. New reactor in jet spouted bed regime for catalytic polymerizations. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1994), 4579–4588.
Bilbao, J., Olazar, M., Romero, A., and Arandes, J. M.. Design and operation of a jet spouted bed reactor with continuous catalyst feed in the benzyl alcohol polymerization. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52 (1987), 1297–1304.
Olazar, M., Arandes, J. M., Zabala, G., Aguayo, A. T., and Bilbao, J.. Design and operation of a catalytic polymerization reactor in a dilute spouted bed regime. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52 (1997), 1637–1643.
Olazar, M., Zabala, G., Arandes, J. M., Gayubo, A. G., and Bilbao, J.. Deactivation kinetic model in catalytic polymerizations taking into account the initiation step. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52 (1996), 62–69.
Olazar, M., Aguado, R., José, M. J. San, and Bilbao, J.. Performance of a conical spouted bed in biomass catalytic pyrolysis. In Récent Progrès en Génic des Procédes, ed. G. Flamant, D. Gauthier, M. Hemati, and D. Steinmetz (Toulouse, France: Lavoisier Technique et Documentation, 2000), 14, 499–506.
Olazar, M., Aguado, R., and Bilbao, J.. Pyrolysis of sawdust in a conical spouted-bed reactor with a HZSM-5 catalyst. AIChE J., 52 (2000), 1025–1033.
Atutxa, A., Aguado, R., Valle, B., Gayubo, A., and Bilbao, J.. Kinetic modelling of catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in a conical spouted bed reactor. In CHISA'04 Congress (Prague, 2004), Paper P 1.43.
Elordi, G., Lopez, G., Aguado, R., Olazar, M., and Bilbao, J.. Catalytic pyrolysis of high density polyethylene on a HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst on a conical spouted bed reactor. Int. J. Chem. Reactor Eng., 52 (2007), 1–9.
Marnasidou, K. G., Voutetakis, S. S., Tjatjopoulos, G. J., and I. Vasalos, A.. Catalytic partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas in a pilot-plant-scale spouted-bed-reactor. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1999), 3691–99.
Arsenijevic, Z. Lj., Grbic, B. V., Grbavcic, Z. B., Radic, N. D., and Terlecki-Baricevic, A. V.. Ethylene oxide removal in combined sorbent/catalyst system. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (1999), 1519–1524.