This chapter describes a selection of neurological diseases, those which are most strongly associated with sleep disorders. Certain neurological disorders include Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, neuromuscular diseases, headache, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Sleep breathing disorders are common in PD. About half of all individuals with PD show obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Snoring, which almost invariably accompanies obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is reported to be a risk factor for stroke. The quality of life in those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis correlates with both daytime respiratory muscle function and polysomnographic indices of nocturnal sleep-related respiratory disturbances. Improved sleep architecture and daytime arterial blood gases, and increased ventilatory response to carbon dioxide, result from nocturnal ventilation in neuromuscular disease. In a study of 14 children with neuromuscular disease, symptoms of daytime sleepiness and headache improved after initiation of non-invasive ventilation. Epileptic seizures during REM sleep are an extremely rare phenomenon.