Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: August 2009

1 - Normal sleep

from SECTION 1 - NORMAL SLEEP

Summary

Sleep is a complex behavior. It may be altered by many different factors including age, genetics, volitional control, timing, previous time awake, and environment. The state of wakefulness regularly alternates with the states of sleep. Polysomnography recordings are scored for movement time. Active wakefulness is characterized by a continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity associated with eye movements and muscular artifacts. Infants, children, and adolescents show different stages of maturation of sleep, in terms of polysomnographic patterns, architecture, and duration of sleep. The duration of nocturnal sleep depends on several factors. Voluntary control of the sleep time is among the most significant in human beings. Young adults report sleeping approximately 7.5 hours a night on weekday nights and 8.5 hours on weekend nights. The timing of sleep has obvious repercussions both on the duration and on the architecture of sleep.
FURTHER READING
Akerstedt, T, Gillberg, M. The circadian variation of experimentally displaced sleep. Sleep 1981; 4:1159–69.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd edn (ICSD-2). Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005.
Anderer, P, Gruber, G, Parapatics, S, et al. An E-health solution for automatic sleep classification according to Rechtschaffen and Kales: validation study of the Somnolyzer 24 × 7 utilizing the Siesta database. Neuropsychobiology 2005; 53:360–63.
Aserinsky, E, Kleitman, N. Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science 1953; 118:273–4.
Atlas Task Force. EEG arousals: scoring rules and examples. A preliminary report from the Sleep Disorders Atlas Task Force of the American Sleep Disorders Association. Sleep 1992; 15: 173–84.
Benoit, O, Foret, J, Bouard, G, et al. Habitual sleep length and patterns of recovery sleep after 24 hour and 36 hour sleep deprivation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1980; 50:477–85.
Bliwise DL. Normal aging. In: Kryger, MH, Roth, T, Dement, WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2005: 24–38.
Carskadon, MA, Brown, ED, Dement, WC. Sleep fragmentation in the elderly: relationship to daytime sleep tendency. Neurobiol Aging 1982; 3:321–7.
Davis, KF, Parker, KP, Montgomery, GL. Sleep in infants and young children. Part one: normal sleep. J Pediatr Health Care 2004; 18:65–71.
Dement, WC, Kleitman, N. The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: an objective method for the study of dreaming. J Exp Psychol 1957; 53:339–46.
Dijk, DJ, Neri, DF, Wyatt, JK, et al. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light–dark cycles during two space shuttle flights. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2001; 281: R1647–64.
Dorffner, G. Toward a new standard of modeling sleep based on polysomnograms: the SIESTA project. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998; 106 (suppl. 1001):28.
Flexer, A, Gruber, G, Dorffner, G. A reliable probabilistic sleep stager based on a single EEG signal. Appl Artif Intell 2004; 33:209–22.
Gati R, Pétieu R, Wamba B, Buguet A. Human sleep in dry tropical Africa. In: Horne, J, ed. Sleep 90. Bochum: Pontenagel Press, 1994: 39–41.
Geering, BA, Achermann, P, Eggimann, F, Borbely, AA. Period-amplitude analysis and power spectral analysis: a comparison based on all-night sleep EEG recordings. J Sleep Res 1993; 2:121–9.
Grigg-Damberger, M, Gozal, D, Marcus, CL, et al. The visual scoring of sleep and arousal in infants and children. J Clin Sleep Med 2007; 3:201–40.
Hjorth, B. EEG analysis based on time domain properties. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1970; 29:306–10.
Jouvet, M. Récherches sur les structures nerveuses et les mécanismes responsables des différentes phases du sommeil physiologique. Arch Ital Biol 1962; 1090:125–206.
Kahn, A, Dan, B, Groswasser, J, Franco, P, Sottiaux, M. Normal sleep architecture in infants and children. J Clin Neurophysiol 1996; 13:184–97.
Karacan, I, Moore, CA. Genetics and human sleep. Psychiatr Ann 1979; 9:11–23.
Kleitman, N. Sleep and Wakefulness. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1939.
Kubicki, S, Höller, L, Berg, I, Pastelack-Price, C, Dorow, R. Sleep EEG evaluation: a comparison of results obtained by visual scoring and automatic analysis with the Oxford sleep stager. Sleep 1989; 12:140–9.
Loomis, AL, Harvey, EN, Hobart, GA. Cerebral states during sleep, as studied by human brain potentials. J Exp Psychol 1937; 21:127–44.
Louis, RP, Lee, J, Stephenson, R. Design and validation of a computer-based sleep-scoring algorithm. J Neurosci Methods 2004; 133:71–80.
Mallis, MM, Roshia, CW. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space. Aviat Space Environ Med 2005; 76 (6 suppl): B94–107.
Montmayeur, A, Buguet, A. Sleep problems in Melanoids and Caucasians living in the tropics. J Sleep Res 1994; 3 (suppl 1): 171.
Natani, K, Shurley, JT, Pierce, CM, Brooks, RE. Long-term changes in sleep patterns in men on the south polar plateau. Arch Intern Med 1970; 125:655–9.
Pardey, J, Roberts, S, Tarassenko, L. A new approach to the analysis of the human sleep/wakefulness continuum. J Sleep Res 1996; 5:201–10.
Penzel, T, Conradt, R. Computer-based sleep recording and analysis. Sleep Med Rev 2000; 4:131–48.
Rechtschaffen, A, Kales, A. A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute, 1968.
Robert, C, Guilpin, C, Limoge, A. Review of neural network application in sleep research. J Neurosci Meth 1998; 79:187–93.
Steel, GD, Callaway, M, Suedfeld, P, Palinkas, L. Human sleep–wake cycles in the high Arctic: effects of unusual photoperiodicity in a natural setting. Biol Rhythm Res 1995; 26:582–92.
Terzano, MG, Parrino, L. Evaluation of EEG cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in insomniacs and controls under placebo and acute treatment with zolpidem. Sleep 1992; 15:64–70.
Terzano, MG, Parrino, L. Origin and significance of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). Sleep Med Rev 2000; 4:101–23.
Terzano, MG, Mancia, D, Salati, MR, et al. The cyclic alternating pattern as a physiologic component of normal NREM sleep. Sleep 1985; 8:137–45.
Terzano, MG, Parrino, L, Mennuni, GF, eds. Phasic Events and Microstructure of Sleep. Consensus conference, Italian Association of Sleep Medicine (AIMS). Lecce: Martano Editore, 1997.
Terzano, MG, Parrino, L, Smerieri, A, et al. Atlas, rules, and recording techniques for the scoring of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in human sleep. Sleep Med 2001; 2:537–53.
Webb, WB, Agnew, HW. Sleep stage characteristics of long and short sleepers. Science 1970; 168:146–7.
Wu, T, Kayser, B. High altitude adaptation in Tibetans. High Alt Med Biol 2006; 7:193–208.