Akiba, M. (2004). Nature and correlates of ijime [bullying] in Japanese middle schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 41, 216–236.
Bentler, P. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.
Bergeron, N. and Schneider, B. H. (2005). Explaining cross national differences in peer-directed aggression: A quantitative synthesis. Aggressive Behavior, 31, 116–137.
Bergmüller, S. (2013). The relationship between cultural individualism-collectivism and student aggression across 62 countries. Aggressive Behavior, 39, 182–200.
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M, and Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185–1229.
Chen, F. F. (2008). What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks? The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1005–1018.
Crick, N. R. and Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722.
Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., de Looze, M., Roberts, C., et al. (Eds.). (2012). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people: Health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study: International report from the 2009/2010 survey. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Fischer, R., Ferreira, M. C., Assmar, E., Redford, P., Harb, C., Glazer, S., et al. (2009). Individualism-collectivism as descriptive norms: Development of a subjective norm approach to culture measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 187–213.
Forbes, G., Zhang, X., Doroszewicz, K., and Haas, K. (2009). Relationships between individualism-collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: A study in China, Poland, and the US. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 24–30.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hui, C. H. (1988). Measurement of individualism – collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 17–36.
Isobe, M. and Hishinuma, Y. (2007). Overt and relational aggression and impression formation in Japanese university students. Japanese Journal of Personality, 15, 290–300.
Kim, U., Triandis, H. C., Kagitcibasi, C., Choi, S. C., and Yoon, G. (1994). Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kanetsuna, T. and Smith, P. K. (2002). Pupil insights into bullying, and coping with bullying: A bi-national study in Japan and England. Journal of School Violence, 1, 5–29.
Kawabata, Y., Crick, N. R. and Hamaguchi, Y. (2010). The role of culture in relational aggression: Associations with social-psychological adjustment problems in Japanese and US school-aged children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34, 354–362.
Koo, H., Kwak, K. and Smith, P. K. (2008). Victimization in Korean schools: The nature, incidence, and distinctive features of Korean bullying or wang-ta. Journal of School Violence, 7, 119–139.
Lansford, J. E., Skinner, A. T., Sorbring, E., Di Giunta, L., et al. (2012). Boys’ and girls’ relational and physical aggression in nine countries. Aggressive Behavior, 38, 298–308.
Li, Y., Wang, M., Wang, C., and Shi, J. (2010). Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents’ aggression: Intracultural variations. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 187–194.
Little, T. D., Jones, S. M., Henrich, C. C., and Hawley, P. H. (2003). Disentangling the ‘whys’ from the ‘whats’ of aggressive behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122–133.
Markus, H. R. and Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
Morita, Y. and Kiyonaga, K. (1986). Ijime: Kyousitsu no Yamai [Ijime: the disease of the classroom]. Tokyo, Japan: Kanekoshobo.
Muthen, L. K. and Muthen, B. O. (2012). Mplus User’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthen and Muthen.
Nesdale, D. and Naito, M. (2005). Individualism-Collectivism and the attitudes to school bullying of Japanese and Australian students. Journal of Cross-Cultural-Psychology, 36, 537–556.
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., and Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.
Pellegrini, A. and Bartini, M. (2000). An empirical comparison of methods of sampling aggression and victimization in school settings. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 360–366.
Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P., and Gelfand, M. J. (1995). Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research, 29, 240–275.
Smith, P. K., Cowie, H., Olafsson, R. F., and Liefooghe, A. P. D. (2002). Definitions of bullying: A comparison of terms used, and age and gender differences, in a fourteen-country international comparison. Child Development, 73, 1119–1133.
Smorti, A., Menesini, E., and Smith, P. K. (2003). Parents’ definitions of children’s bullying in a five country comparison. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 34, 417–432.
Steiger, J. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173–180.
Strohmeier, D., Aoyama, I., Gradinger, P., and Toda, Y. (2013). Cyber-victimization and cyberaggression in eastern and western countries: Challenges of constructing a cross culturally appropriate scale. In Bauman, S., Cross, D. and Walker, J. (Eds.) Principles of cyberbullying research: Definitions, measures, and methodology. (pp. 202–221). New York: Routledge.
Takano, Y. and Sogon, S. (2008). Are Japanese more collectivistic than Americans? Examining conformity in in-groups and the reference-group effect. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 237–250.
Taki, M. (2003). Ijime bullying: characteristic, causality and intervention. Oxford Kobe seminar: Bullying in schools. Kobe, Japan: Kobe Institut.
Taki, M., Slee, P., Hymel, S., Pepler, D., Sim, H., and Swearer, S. (2008). A new definition and scales for indirect aggression in schools: Results from the longitudinal comparative survey among five countries. International Journal of Violence and School, 7, 3–19.
Toda, Y., Strohmeier, D., and Spiel, C. (2008). Process model of bullying. In Katoh, T. and Taniguchi, H. (Eds.), Dark side of interpersonal relationships. (pp. 117–131). Kyoto: Kitaohji-Shobo.
Treml, J. (2001). Bullying as a social malady in contemporary Japan. International Social Work, 44, 107–117.
Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press.
Triandis, H. C. and Gelfand, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 118–128.
Ucanok, Z., Smith, P.K., and Sertkaya Karasoy, D. (2011). Definitions of bullying: Age and sex differences in a Turkish sample. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 14, 75–83.