Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-wg55d Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-26T03:00:34.528Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 February 2024

Erin Pobjie
Affiliation:
University of Essex and Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg

Summary

Type
Chapter
Information
Prohibited Force
The Meaning of ‘Use of Force' in International Law
, pp. 259 - 264
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2024
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NC
This content is Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence CC-BY-NC 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/cclicenses/

Index

aggression, 1, 4, 23, 71, 98, 130, 133, 174, See also Definition of Aggression
crime of, 4, 11
indirect, See Definition of Aggression, articles 3(f) and (g)
aircraft, 164
aerial incursion, See Incusion, aerial
air fleets, 93
civil, 5, 166, 177
Algeria, 118
Al-Wazir, Khalil, 174
Antarctica, 144, 220
Argentina, 120
Armistice lines, 94, 109, 113
article 2(4), 1, See also Use of force, Threat of force
all members, 8587
history of, 22
international relations, 133, 137, 142, 155, 197, 204, 227
relationship with customary rule, 16, 17, 5670, 77
subsequent agreements, 106115
against the territorial integrity…, 101
article 51, 6, 10, 57, 61, 136, 170, 178
armed attack, 4, 6, 145
assassination, See targeted killing
Australia, 120, 220
blockade, 164, See also Definition of Aggression, article 3(c)
Brazil, 117
Briand–Kellogg Pact, See Kellogg–Briand Pact
Brownlie, Ian, 3, 23, 97, 102, 125, 129, 139, 140, 149, 162, 165
Burma, 118
Bush, George, 137
Cambodia, 174, 206
Cameroon, 118
Canada, 120, 185, 219, 223
Chile, 118, 119
China, 182, 218, 225
consent, 75, 103, 168
Corten, Olivier, 15, 63, 65, 77, 79, 98, 103, 117, 125, 140, 148, 149, 151, 152, 156, 177, 184, 210
countermeasures, 7, 9, 10
Crimea, 168
custom, 9
Baxter’s paradox, 11, 3051
conduct referable to treaty, 20, 3536
crystallisation, 29
own impact, 5156
silence and inaction, 4451
treaty ratification and, 36
two-element approach, 3051
verbal acts, 44
cyber operations, 2, 7, 8, 9, 126, 129, 130, 134, 135, 141, 195
Czechoslovakia, 118, 123, 162
de minimis, 4, 99, 138, 140143, 185
Definition of Aggression, 106, 111, 123, 151, 161, 187, 199
article 3(a) invasion or attack, occupation, annexation, 162, 200
article 3(b) bombardment, 126
article 3(c) blockade, 164, 200
article 3(e) SOFA, 167, 200
article 3(f) indirect aggression, 169, 201
article 3(g) substantial involvement, 93, 171, 201
Democratic Republic of the Congo, 168
Denmark, 207
disputed territory, 94
economic coercion, 116125
effects, 5, 130, 138, 197
direct, 134
gravity, 197
physical, 130, 132, 164, 167, 174, 176, 195
potential, 136, 202, 214
temporary, 135
embassy, 94, 144
Entebbe incident, 93, 152
erga omnes, 10
France, 120, 210
Friendly Relations Declaration, 38, 4244, 89, 106, 109
travaux préparatoires, 92, 96, 102, 116125, 133
Georgia, 156
Germany, 162, 169, 208, 219
Federal Republic of, 33
German Democratic Republic, 33
Ghana, 118
Green, James, 56, 61, 63, 7274
grey zone operations, 7
Guatemala, 120
Guinea, 207
Gulf War, 165, 216
Guyana v Suriname, 208
Henderson, Christian, 99, 125, 127, 130, 133, 137, 142, 149, 153
hot pursuit, 141, 207
Iceland, 208
incursion, 5, 150
aerial, 5, 97, 141, 151, 175, 176, 200
maritime, 141, 181, 182
response to, 97, 141, 176
territorial (small-scale), 5
India, 118, 218, 222
individuals, 58, 86, 93, 132, 150, See also Aggression, crime of
Indonesia, 174
intent, 4, 5, 94, 140, 145157, 204, 227
accident, 150, 196
coercive, 152
hostile, 197
mistake, 150
international armed conflict and ‘use of force’, 211
International Court of Justice, 3
Armed Activities case, 3, 19, 142, 163, 168, 172
Certain Expenses advisory opinion, 91
Corfu Channel case, 3, 142, 144, 146
Fisheries Jurisdiction (Federal Republic of Germany v Iceland), 3
Fisheries Jurisdiction (Germany v Iceland), 208
Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v Canada), 3, 185
Fisheries Jurisdiction (UK v Iceland), 10, 75
Namibia advisory opinion, 108
Nicaragua case, 3, 6, 1718, 25, 34, 37, 39, 42, 55, 61, 67, 71, 86, 98, 110, 138, 142, 153, 171, 175
North Sea Continental Shelf Cases, 31, 33, 35, 47, 5156, 154
Nuclear Weapons advisory opinion, 3, 42, 96, 126, 148
Oil Platforms case, 3, 142
Statute of the, 26
Tehran Hostages case, 3
Temple of Preah Vihear, 174
Wall advisory opinion, 3, 142
International Criminal Court
crime of aggression, 11
Rome Statute, 4
war crimes, 11, 191
international humanitarian law, 163, 166
classification of conflict, 10, 211
International Law Association, 6
Committee on Formation of Customary (General) International Law, 40, 47, 52
International Law Commission
Articles on State Responsibility, See State responsibility
Committee on Peremptory Norms of General International Law (jus cogens), 71
Committee on Subsequent Agreement and Subsequent Practice, 68
Committee on the Identification of Customary International Law, 31, 37, 48
international organisations
practice of, 107
use of force by, 57, 86
international peace and security, 9092
international relations, 87101, 133, 137, 142, 155, 197, 204, 220, 227
inter-war period, 22
Iran, 2, 8, 142, 165, 175
Iraq, 142, 170, 175, 202
Israel, 93, 174
Italy, 120
Japan, 2, 33, 127, 182, 220
jus cogens, 5, 9, 7077
jus in bello, See international humanitarian law
Kellogg–Briand Pact, 22, 87
Kelsen, Hans, 23, 24, 28, 53, 88, 125
Kenya, 118
Kreß, Claus, 19, 88, 95, 97, 103, 168, 169, 171, 172
Kuwait, 137, 202
law enforcement, 5, 97, 99, 141, 177, 185
maritime, 93, 141, 155, 180, 204
UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, 100
law of armed conflict, See international humanitarian law
law of the sea, 99, 144
Convention on the Law of the Sea, 36, 166, 180, 207
EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone), 26, 144, 180, 199, 205, 207, 208
high seas, 89, 96, 144, 183, 184, 199, 209
innocent passage, 181
interdiction, 9
internal waters, 144, 180, 210
territorial sea, 5, 103, 141, 144, 180, 181, 182, 206, 207, 208, 210
League of Nations Covenant, 22
Lebanon, 120, 175
Liberia, 152, 184, 209
Libya, 142, 175
Liechtenstein, 94, 151
Litvinenko, Alexander, 137
Lotus case, 47, 183
M/V Saiga (No. 2), 207
Madagascar, 118
Malaysia, 137, 174
Mayaguez, 152, 206
merchant vessels, 5, 93, 165, 205
mere presence, 5, 167, 195
Mexico, 119
military occupation, 95, 162, 195, See also Definition of Aggression, article 3(a)
NATO, 2, 57, 216
Netherlands, 25, 120, 210
neutrality, 165
New Zealand, 210, 219
Nicaragua, 18
Nigeria, 118, 122
non-intervention principle, 10, 116, 133, 153
non-State armed groups, 58, 63, 86, 98, 130, 171, 201
North Korea, 2, 127, 135, 137, 142
Nötigung, 191
O’Connell, Mary Ellen, 98, 140, 141, 165
outer space, 2, 89, 96, 144, 190, 199, 216228
PAROS, 217
satellites, 126, 129, 135, 136, 216
space debris, 219
space law, 217
peremptory norm, See jus cogens
Poland, 118
police measures, See law enforcement
Rainbow Warrior, 152, 210
Red Crusader, 207
rescue of nationals, 152, 175
Romania, 118, 123
Russia, 1, 168, 178, 203, 212, 218, 225
Ruys, Tom, 45, 98, 99, 141, 142, 150, 156, 177, 205
self-defence, See Article 51
Serbia, 142
silence and inaction, 4451
Skripal, Sergei, 2, 137, 190, 202, 212228
South Africa, 151
South China Sea, 8, 93, 199, 205
South Korea, 135
sovereignty, 90
space law, 217
Spain, 185
St Vincent and the Grenadines, 207
State
extraterritorial manifestation, 94, 144
State responsibility, 9, 74, 86, 145
attribution, 169, 172, 218
circumstances precluding wrongfulness, 10, 177
Status of Forces Agreement, 165, See also Definition of Aggression, article 3(e)
submarines, 5, 141, 142, 144, 181, 182
Suriname, 208
Sweden, 120, 142, 182
Switzerland, 33, 94, 151
Syria, 118, 133, 170, 178
Tadic case, 87, 172
Tallinn Manual, 130, 134, 135
targeted killing, 2, 152, 174, 202, 212228
terra nullius, 88, 199, 220
Thailand, 174
threat of force, 72, 165, 196, 209
coercion, and, 147
relationship with use of force, 147
Torrey Canyon, 184, 209
treaty interpretation, 78, 8183, See also Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
evolutive, 66
modification, 64, 70, 76
Tunis, 174
Turkey, 133, 178
type theory, 12, 14, 189
Uganda, 93, 163, 168
Ukraine, 1, 168
UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, 100
UN Charter
article 1, 91
article 2(3), 155
article 2(4), See Article 2(4)
article 2(6), 28, 53
article 2(7), 147
article 27(3), 108
article 41, 8
article 42, 8, 125
article 51, See Article 51
article 103, 69, 76
article 108, 68
article 109, 68
chapter VII, 8, 10
object and purpose, 8992
Preamble, 91
travaux préparatoires, 102, 117
UN General Assembly resolutions
as evidence of opinio juris, 20, 4144
Resolution 2625, See Friendly Relations Declaration
Resolution 3314, See Definition of Aggression
Resolution 42/22, 38, 89, 106, 111
as subsequent agreement, 107
World Summit Outcome Document, 90, 106, 112
UN Security Council, 4, 8
resolutions as subsequent agreement, 107
United Arab Republic, 118
United Kingdom, 2, 120, 137, 142, 165, 184, 203, 207, 209, 210, 212, 219
USA, 2, 6, 8, 18, 25, 120, 142, 175, 202, 206, 218, 219, 225
use of force
armed attack, relationship with, 6
armed force, 5, 114, 116125, 162, 188, 195
customary prohibition, 1729
effects, See Effects
gap, 67, 99, 138
gravity, 4, 5, 94, 98, 145, 156, 185, 196, 204
indirect, 86, 110, 130, 201
intent, See Intent
international relations, 220
lower threshold, 7, 10
nexus, 197, 203
object, 197, 202
ordinary meaning, 115
against own population, 96
within own territory, 63, 95100, 150
political context, 93, 198
USSR, 118
Venezuela, 120
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
1966 draft, 64
article 5, 81
article 31, 60, 78, 82, 106, 231
article 32, 82, 107, 124
article 40, 69
article 41, 68
article 52, 10, 75
article 53, 70, 75
draft article 36, 25
Vietnam, 206
war, 2426, 27, 117
warship, 144, 165, 181
weapons, 5, 125130, 176, 198
ASAT, 218
ballistic missile, 2
biological and chemical, 128, 137, 204, 212
cyber, See Cyber operations
dazzling, 129, 135, 218
jamming, 129, 135, 218
kinetic, 5, 128, 161
nuclear, 97, 129, 134
spoofing, 129, 135
use of environment as, 129
Yugoslavia, 118

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

  • Index
  • Erin Pobjie, University of Essex and Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg
  • Book: Prohibited Force
  • Online publication: 23 February 2024
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009022897.016
Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

  • Index
  • Erin Pobjie, University of Essex and Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg
  • Book: Prohibited Force
  • Online publication: 23 February 2024
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009022897.016
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Index
  • Erin Pobjie, University of Essex and Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg
  • Book: Prohibited Force
  • Online publication: 23 February 2024
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009022897.016
Available formats
×