Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: February 2011

Chapter 32 - Molecular and cellular integrity of cultured follicles

from Section 8 - In vitro follicle growth and maturation


Patients with early cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB1 or less) are conventionally considered treated with a surgical approach while those with more advanced disease are treated by radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Dargent's operation is the realization of a laparoscopic pelvic lymph-node dissection associated with a radical cervical amputation through a vaginal approach. Dargent's operation or radical trachelectomy enables preservation of fertility among women with early cervical cancer. The benefits of Dargent's operation are linked to the laparoscopic approach, which reduces the risk of adhesions on pelvis organs and the vaginal route that allows the preservation of uterine body and its optimal vascularization. Following the excellent results achieved by the Dargent's operation, several teams have proposed operating variants through laparotomy or laparoscopy. These modifications are subject to criticism because they are usually associated with the section of the uterine arteries and, thus, with a partial devascularization of the uterus.


1. SmitzJ and CortvrindtR. Oocyte in-vitro maturation and follicle culture: current clinical achievements and future directions. Hum Reprod 1999; 14(Suppl. 1): 145–61.
2. RodriguesP, LimbackD, McGinnisLK, PlanchaCE and AlbertiniDF. Oogenesis: prospects and challenges for the future. J Cell Physiol 2008; 216(2): 355–65.
3. RosendahlM, AndersenCY, ErnstEet al. Ovarian function after removal of an entire ovary for cryopreservation of pieces of cortex prior to gonadotoxic treatment: a follow-up study. Hum Reprod 2008; 23(11): 2475–83.
4. SanchezM, AlamaP, GadeaBet al. Fresh human orthotopic ovarian cortex transplantation: long-term results. Hum Reprod 2007; 22(3): 786–91.
5. SenbonS, IshiiK, FukumiY and MiyanoT. Fertilization and development of bovine oocytes grown in female SCID mice. Zygote 2005; 13(4): 309–15.
6. TelferEE, BinnieJP, McCafferyFH and CampbellBK. In vitro development of oocytes from porcine and bovine primary follicles. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2000; 163(1–2): 117–23.
7. Van Den HurkR, AbirR, TelferEE and BeversMM. Primate and bovine immature oocytes and follicles as sources of fertilizable oocytes. Hum Reprod Update 2000; 6(5): 457–74.
8. HuttKJ and AlbertiniDF. An oocentric view of folliculogenesis and embryogenesis. Reprod Biomed Online 2007; 14(6): 758–64.
9. JayawardanaBC, ShimizuT, NishimotoHet al. Hormonal regulation of expression of growth differentiation factor-9 receptor type I and II genes in the bovine ovarian follicle. Reproduction 2006; 131(3): 545–53.
10. WaltersKA, BinnieJP, CampbellBK, ArmstrongDG and TelferEE. The effects of IGF-I on bovine follicle development and IGFBP-2 expression are dose and stage dependent. Reproduction 2006; 131(3): 515–23.
11. BlondinP, BousquetD, TwagiramunguH, BarnesF and SirardMA. Manipulation of follicular development to produce developmentally competent bovine oocytes. Biol Reprod 2002; 66(1): 2838–43.
12. ChianRC, ChungJT, DowneyBR and TanSL. Maturational and developmental competence of immature oocytes retrieved from bovine ovaries at different phases of folliculogenesis. Reprod Biomed Online 2002; 4(2): 127–32.
13. FortuneJE, KitoS and ByrdDD. Activation of primordial follicles in vitro. J ReprodFertil 1999; 54: 439–48.
14. HaradaM, MiyanoT, MatsumuraKet al. Bovine oocytes from early antral follicles grow to meiotic competence in vitro: effect of FSH and hypoxanthine. Theriogenology 1997; 48(5): 743–55.
15. AmorimCA, Van LangendoncktA, DavidA, DolmansMM and DonnezJ. Survival of human pre-antral follicles after cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, follicular isolation and in vitro culture in a calcium alginate matrix. Hum Reprod 2009; 24(1): 92–9.
16. HeiseM, KoepselR, RussellAJ and McGeeEA. Calcium alginate microencapsulation of ovarian follicles impacts FSH delivery and follicle morphology. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2005; 3: 47.
17. JohnsonLD, AlbertiniDF, McGinnisLK and BiggersJD. Chromatin organization, meiotic status and meiotic competence acquisition in mouse oocytes from cultured ovarian follicles. J Reprod Fertil 1995; 104(2): 277–84.
18. LenieS, CortvrindtR, AdriaenssensT and SmitzJ. A reproducible two-step culture system for isolated primary mouse ovarian follicles as single functional units. Biol Reprod 2004; 71(5): 1730–8.
19. Loret de MolaJR, BarnhartK, KopfGSet al. Comparison of two culture systems for the in-vitro growth and maturation of mouse preantral follicles. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2004; 31(1): 15–19.
20. VigoD, VillaniS, FaustiniMet al. Follicle-like model by granulosa cell encapsulation in a barium alginate-protamine membrane. Tissue Eng 2005; 11(5–6): 709–14.
21. HeiseMK, KoepselR, McGeeEA and RussellAJ. Dynamic oxygen enhances oocyte maturation in long-term follicle culture. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2009; 15(3): 323–32.
22. KerosV, XellaS, HultenbyKet al. Vitrification versus controlled-rate freezing in cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue. Hum Reprod 2009; 24(7): 1670–83.
23. MamanE, ProkopisK, LevronJet al. Does controlled ovarian stimulation prior to chemotherapy increase primordial follicle loss and diminish ovarian reserve? An animal study. Hum Reprod 2009; 24(1): 206–10.
24. BromfieldJJ, CoticchioG, HuttKet al. Meiotic spindle dynamics in human oocytes following slow-cooling cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 2009; 24(9): 2114–23.
25. FairT, HyttelP and GreveT. Bovine oocyte diameter in relation to maturational competence and transcriptional activity. Mol Reprod Dev 1995; 42(4): 437–42.
26. HumblotP, HolmP, LonerganPet al. Effect of stage of follicular growth during superovulation on developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Theriogenology 2005; 63(4): 1149–66.
27. AlbertiniDF, CombellesCM, BenecchiE and CarabatsosMJ. Cellular basis for paracrine regulation of ovarian follicle development. Reproduction 2001; 121(5): 647–53.
28. FearyES, JuengelJL, SmithPet al. Patterns of expression of messenger RNAs encoding GDF9, BMP15, TGFBR1, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 during follicular development and characterization of ovarian follicular populations in ewes carrying the Woodlands FecX2W mutation. Biol Reprod 2007; 77(6): 990–8.
29. Fouladi-NashtaAA and CampbellKH. Dissociation of oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation by the addition of insulin in cultured bovine antral follicles. Reproduction 2006; 131(3): 449–60.
30. IwataH, HashimotoS, OhotaMet al. Effects of follicle size and electrolytes and glucose in maturation medium on nuclear maturation and developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Reproduction 2004; 127(2): 159–64.
31. PavlokA, LapathitisG, CechSet al. Simulation of intrafollicular conditions prevents GVBD in bovine oocytes: a better alternative to affect their developmental capacity after two-step culture. Mol Reprod Dev 2005; 71(2): 197–208.
32. AlbertiniDF. Regulation of meiotic maturation in the mammalian oocyte: Inteplay between exogenous cues and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Bioessays 1992; 14(2): 97–103.
33. AllworthAE and AlbertiniDF. Meiotic maturation in cultured bovine oocytes is accompanied by remodeling of the cumulus cell cytoskeleton. Dev Biol 1993; 158(1): 101–12.
34. CombellesCM, CarabatsosMJ, KumarTR, MatzukMM and AlbertiniDF. Hormonal control of somatic cell oocyte interactions during ovarian follicle development. Mol Reprod Dev 2004; 69(3): 347–55.
35. BerkholtzCB, SheaLD and WoodruffTK. Extracellular matrix functions in follicle maturation. Semin Reprod Med 2006; 24(4): 262–9.
36. DongJ, AlbertiniDF, NishimoriKet al. Growth differentiation factor-9 is required during early ovarian folliculogenesis. Nature 1996; 383(6600): 531–5.
37. CarabatsosMJ, ElvinJ, MatzukMM and AlbertiniDF. Characterization of oocyte and follicle development in growth differentiation factor-9-deficient mice. Dev Biol 1998; 204(2): 373–84.
38. AlbertiniDF. Oocyte–granulosa cell interactions. In: Blerkom JV (ed.), Essential IVF: Reviews of Topical Issues in Clinical In Vitro Fertilization. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002: pp. 43–58.
39. CarabatsosMJ, SellittoC, GoodenoughDA and AlbertiniDF. Oocyte–granulosa cell heterologous gap junctions are required for the coordination of nuclear and cytoplasmic meiotic competence. Dev Biol 2000; 226(2): 167.
40. MattsonBA and AlbertiniDF. Oogenesis: chromatin and microtubule dynamics during meiotic prophase. Mol Reprod Dev 1990; 25(4): 374–83.
41. McGinnisLK, KinseyWH and AlbertiniDF. Functions of Fyn kinase in the completion of meiosis in mouse oocytes. Dev Biol 2009; 327(2): 280–7.
42. ParrottJA and SkinnerMK. Direct actions of kit-ligand on theca cell growth and differentiation during follicle development. Endocrinology 1997; 138(9): 3819–27.
43. RodriguesP, LimbackD, McGinnisLK, PlanchaCE and AlbertiniDF. Multiple mechanisms of germ cell loss in the perinatal mouse ovary. Reproduction 2009; 137(4): 709–20.
44. HanouxV, PairaultC, BakalskaM, HabertR and LiveraG. Caspase-2 involvement during ionizing radiation-induced oocyte death in the mouse ovary. Cell Death Differ 2007; 14(4): 671–81.