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  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: March 2016

Chapter 13 - Management of postoperative nausea and vomiting in inpatients and ambulatory patients

1.Apfel, CC, Laara, E, Koivuranta, M, et al. A simplified risk score for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1999; 91:693700.
2.Gan, TJ, Diemunsch, P, Habib, AS, et al. Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting. Anasth Analg 2014; 118:85113.
3.Fortier, J, Chung, F, Su, J. Unanticipated admission after ambulatory surgery – a prospective study. Can J Anaesth 1998; 45:612–9.
4.Gold, BS, Kitz, DS, Lecky, JH, et al. Unanticipated admission to the hospital following ambulatory surgery. JAMA 1989; 262:3008–10.
5.Brenner, WG, Kumar, CM. Delayed surgical emphysema, pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothoraces after postoperative vomiting. Br J Anaesth 1993; 71: 296–7.
6.Eberhart, LHJ, Morin, AM, Kranke, P, et al. Prevention and control of post-operative nausea and vomiting in post-craniotomy patients. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2008; 22(1): 575593.
7.Apfel, CC, Heidrich, FM, Jukar-Rao, S, et al. Evidence-based analysis of risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth 2012; 109:742–53
8.Apfel, CC, Kortilla, K, Abdalla, M, et al. IMPACT Investigators. A factorial trial of six interventions for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. N Engl J Med 2004; 350:2441–51.
9.Liu, SS, Strodtbeck, WM, Richman, JM, et al. A comparison of regional versus general anesthesia for ambulatory anesthesia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesth Analg 2005; 101:1634–42.
10.Sinclair, DR, Chung, F, Mezei, G. Can postoperative nausea and vomiting be predicted. Anesthesiology 1999; 91:109–18.
11.Tramer, MR, Fuchs-Buder, T. Omitting antagonism of neuromuscular block: effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting and risk of residual paralysis: a systematic review. Br J Anaesth 1999; 82:379–86.
12.Cheng, CR, Sessler, DI, Apfel, CC. Does neostigmine administration produce a clinically important increase in postoperative nausea and vomiting? Anesth Analg 2005; 101:1349–55.
13.Wheeler, M, Oderda, GM, Ashburn, MA, et al. Adverse events associated with postoperative opioid analgesia: a systematic review. J Pain 2002; 3:159–80.
14.Roberts, GW, Bekker, TB, Carlsen, HH, et al. Postoperative nausea and vomiting are strongly influenced by postoperative opioid use in a dose-related manner. Anesth Analg 2005; 101:1343–8.
15.Marret, E, Kurdi, O, Zufferey, P, et al. Effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on patient-controlled analgesia morphine side effects: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:1249–60.
16.Gan, TJ, Joshi, GP, Zhao, SZ, et al. Presurgical intravenous parecoxib sodium and follow-up oral valdecoxib for pain management after laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery reduces opioid requirements and opioid-related adverse effects. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48:1194–207.
17.Lee, SJ, Lee, JN. The effect of perioperative esmolol infusion on the post-operative nausea, vomiting and pain after laparoscopic appendectomy. Korean J Anesthesiol 2010; 59:179–84.
18.Collard, V, Mistraletti, G, Taqi, A, et al. Intraoperative esmolol infusion in the absence of opioids spares postoperative fentanyl in patients undergoing ambulatory Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesth Analg 2007; 105:1255–62.
19.Gurbet, A, Basagan-Mogol, E, Turker, G, et al. Intraoperative infusion of dexemedetomodine reduces perioperative analgesic requirements. Can J Anaesth 2006; 53:646–52.
20.Tiippana, EM, Hamunen, K, Kontinen, VK, et al. Do surgical patients benefit from perioperative gabapenin/pregabalin? A systematic review of efficacy and safety. Anesth Anal 2007; 104:1545–57.
21.Hurley, RW, Cohen, SP, Williams, KA, et al. The analgesic effect of perioperative gabapentin on postoperative pain: a meta-analysis. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2006; 31:237–47.
22.Bell, RF, Dahl, JB, Moore, RA, et al. Peri-operative ketamine for acute post-operative pain: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review (Cochrane review). Acta Anesthesiol Scand 2005; 49:1405–28.
23.Pierre, S, Corno, G, Benais, H, et al. A risk score-dependent antiemetic approach effectively reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting – a continuous quality improvement initiative. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51:320–5
24.Kovac, AL, Eberhart, L, Kotarski, J, et al. A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different doses of palonosetron versus placebo in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting over a 72-hour period. Anesth Analg 2008; 107:439–44.
25.Tramer, MR, Reynolds, JM, Moore, RA, et al. Efficacy, dose–response and safety of ondansetron in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:1277–89.
26.Kovac, AL, O’Connor, TA, Pearman, MH, et al. Efficacy of repeat intravenous dosing of ondansetron in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11:453–9.
27.Henzi, I, Walder, B, Tramer, MR. Dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. A quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg 2000; 90:186–94.
28.Wang, JJ, Ho, ST, Tzeng, JI, et al. The effect of timing of dexamethasone administration on its efficacy as a prophylactic antiemetic for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:136–39.
29.De Oliveira, GS, Almeida, MD, Benzon, HT, et al. Perioperative single dose systemic dexamethasone for postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 2011; 115:575–88.
30.De Oliveira, GS, Ahmad, S, Fitzgerald, PC, et al. Dose ranging study on the effect of preoperative dexamethasone on postoperative quality of recovery and opioid consumption after ambulatory gynaecologic surgery. Br J Anaesth 2011; 107:362–71.
31.Murphy, GS, Szokol, JW, Greenberg, MD, et al. Preoperative dexamethasone enhances quality of recovery after laparoscopic cholecytectomy. Anesthesiology 2011; 114:882–90.
32.Khan, SA, McDonagh, DL, Gan, TJ. Wound complications with dexamethasone for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis: a moot point? Anesth Analg 2013; 116:966–7.
33.Cowie, BS, Allen, KJ, Said, SA, et al. Anti-emetic doses of dexamethasone suppress cortisol response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anaesth Intensive Care 2010; 38:667–70.
34.Dieleman, JM, Nierich, AP, Rosseel, et al. Dexamethasone for Cardiac Surgery (DECS) Study Group. Intraoperative high-dose dexamethasone for cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2012; 308:1761–7.
35.Abdelmalak, B, Bonilla, AM, Yang, D, et al. The hyperglycemic response to major noncardiac surgery and the added effect of steroid administration in patients with and without diabetes. Anesth Analg 2013; 116:1116–22.
36.Pergolizzi, JV, Philip, BK, Taylor, RJ. Perspectives on transdermal scopolamine for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J Clin Anesth 2012; 24:334–45.
37.White, PF, Tang, J, Song, D, et al. Transdermal scopolamine: an alternative to ondansetron and droperidol for the prevention of postoperative and postdischarge emetic symptoms. Anesth Analg 2007; 104:9296.
38.Kranke, P, Morin, AM, Roewer, N, et al. The efficacy and safety of transdermal scopolamine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg 2002; 95:133–43.
39.Apfel, CC, Zhang, K, George, E, et al. Transdermal scopolamine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ther 2010; 32:1987–2002.
40.White, P. Droperidol: a cost-effective antiemetic for over thirty years. Anesth Analg 2002; 95:789–90.
41.Henzi, I, Sonderegger, J, Tramer, M. Efficacy, dose–response, and adverse effects of droperidol for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 2000; 47:537551.
42.Fortney, J, Gan, TJ, Graczyk, S, et al. A comparison of the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction of ondansetron versus droperidol as antiemetics for elective outpatient surgical procedures. Anesth Analg 1998; 86:731–8.
43.Charbit, B, Albaladejo, P, Funck-Brentano, C, et al. Prolongation of QTc interval after postoperative nausea and vomiting treatment by droperidol or ondansetron. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:1094–100.
44.Buttner, M, Walder, B, von Elm, E, et al. Is low-dose haloperidol a useful antiemetic? A meta-analysis of published and unpublished randomized trials. Anesthesiology 2004; 101:1454–63.
45.Lee, Y, Wang, PK, Lai, HY, et al. Haloperidol is as effective as ondansetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Can J Anaesth 2007; 54:349–54.
46.Yang, YL, Lai, HY, Wang, JJ, et al. The timing of haloperidol administration does not affect is prophylactic antiemetic efficacy. Can J Anaesth 2008; 55:270–5.
47.Khalil, S, Philbrook, L, Rabb, M, et al. Ondansetron/promethazine combination or promethazine alone reduces nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11:596600.
48.Gan, TJ, Meyer, TA, Apfel, CC, et al. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting. Anesth Analg 2007; 105:1615–24.
49.Moser, JD, Caldwell, JB, Rhule, FJ. No more than necessary: safety and efficacy of low-dose promethazine. Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40:45–8.
50.Chia, YY, Lo, Y, Liu, K, et al. The effect of promethazine on postoperative pain: a comparison of preoperative, postoperative, and placebo administration in patients following total abdominal hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48:625–30.
51.Kovac, AL. Prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Drugs 2000; 59: 213–43.
52.Chen, JJ, Frame, DG, White, TJ. Efficacy of ondansetron and prochlorperazine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after total hip replacement or total knee replacement produres. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158:2124–29.
53.Gan, TJ, Apfel, CC, Kovac, A, et al. Aprepitant-PONV Study Group. A randomized, double-blind comparison of the NK1 antagonist, aprepitant, versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 2007; 104:1082–9.
54.Apfel, CC, Malhotra, A, Leslie, JB. The role of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Curr Opin Anesth 2008; 21:427–32.
55.Diemunsch, P, Gan, TJ, Philip, BK, et al. Aprepitant-PONV Protocol 091 International Study Group. Single-dose aprepitant vs ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind Phase III trial in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99:202–11.
56.Henzi, I, Walder, B, Tramer, MR. Metoclopramide in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Br J Anaesth 1999; 83:761–7.
57.Gralla, RJ, Itri, LM, Pisko, SE, et al. Antiemetic efficacy of high-dose metoclopramide: randomized trials with placebo and prochlorperazine in patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. N Engl J Med 1981; 305:905–9.
58.Monagle, J, Barnes, R, Goodchild, C, et al. Ondansetron is not superior to moderate dose metoclopramide in the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after gynaecologic surgery. Eur J Anaesth 1997; 14:604–9.
59.Rothenberg, DM, Parnass, SM, Litwack, K, et al. Efficacy of ephedrine in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg 1991; 72:5861.
60.Hageman, E, Halvorson, A, Holgersen, O, et al. Intramuscular ephedrine reduces emesis during the first three hours after abdominal hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000; 44:107–11.
61.Kranke, P, Morin, AM, Roewer, N, et al. Dimenhydrinate for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2002; 46:238–44.
62.Eberhart, HJ, Seeling, W, Bopp, TI, et al. Dimenhydrinate for prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting in female in-patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1999; 16:284–9.
63.Gan, TJ, Glass, PSA, Howell, ST, et al. Determination of plasma concentration of propofol associated with 50% reduction in postoperative nausea. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:779–84.
64.Borgeat, A, Wilder-Smith, OHG, Saiah, M, et al. Subhypnotic doses of propofol possess direct antiemetic properties. Anesth Analg 1992; 74:539–41.
65.Ostman, PL, Faure, E, Glosten, B, et al. Is the antiemetic effect of the emulsion formulation of propofol due to the lipid emulsion? Anesth Analg 1990; 71:536–40.
66.Gan, TJ, Ginsberg, B, Grant, P, et al. Double-blind, randomized comparison of ondansetron and intraoperative propfol to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 1996; 85:1036–42.
67.Unlugenc, H, Guler, T, Gunes, Y, et al. Comparative study of the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron, propofol and midazolam in the early postoperative period. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21:60–5.
68.Diab, A, Gelb, AW, Cechetto, DF. Effects of the anesthetic propofol on 5-HT and FOS in the rat brain [Abstract]. Neuroscience 1994; 20:1169.
69.Kain, ZN, Mayes, LC, Bell, C, et al. Premedication in the United States: a status report. Anesth Analg 1997; 84:427–32.
70.Bauer, KP, Dom, PM, Ramirez, AM, et al. Preoperative intravenous midazolam: benefits beyond anxiolysis. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16:177–83.
71.Lee, Y, Wang, JJ, Yang, YL, et al. Midazolam vs ondansetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomised controlled trial. Anaesthesia 2007; 62:1822.
72.Lee, A, Fan, LT. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point P6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; (2):CD003281.
73.White, PF, Hamza, MA, Recart, A, et al. Optimal timing of acustimulation for antiemetic prophylaxis as an adjunct to ondansetron in patients undergoing plastic surgery. Anesth Analg 2005; 100:367–72
74.Arnberger, M, Stadelmann, K, Alischer, P, et al. Monitoring of neuromuscular blockade at the P6 acupuncture point reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 2007; 107:903908
75.Yogendran, S, Asokumar, B, Cheng, DCH, et al. A prospective randomized double-blinded study of the effect of intravenous fluid therapy on adverse outcomes on outpatient surgery. Anesth Analg 1995; 80:682–6.
76.Maharaj, CH, Kallam, SR, Malik, A, et al. Preoperative intravenous fluid therapy decreases postoperative nausea and pain in high risk patients. Anesth Analg 2005; 100:675–82.
77.Gan, TJ, Soppitt, A, Maroof, M, et al. Goal-directed intraoperative fluid administration reduces length of hospital stay after major surgery. Anesthesiology 2002; 97:820–26.
78.Gupta, A, Wu, CL, Elkassabany, N, et al. Does the routine prophylactic use of antiemetics affect the incidence of postdischarge nausea and vomiting following ambulatory surgery? Anesthesiology 2003; 99:488–95.
79.Apfel, C, Philip, B, Cakmakkaya, OS, et al. Who is at risk for postdischarge nausea and vomiting after ambulatory surgery? Anesthesiology 2012; 117: 475–86.
80.Kovac, AL, Eberhart, L, Kotarski, J, et al. Palonosetron 04-07 Study Group. A randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three different doses of palonosetron versus placebo in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting over a 72-hour period. Anesth Analg 2008; 107:439–44.
81.George, E, Hornuss, C, Apfel, CC. Neurokinin-1 and novel seratonin antagonists for postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting. Curr Opin Anesth 2010; 23:714–21.
82.Apfel, CC, Kranke, P, Katz, MH, et al. Volatile anaesthetics may be the main cause of early but not delayed postoperative vomiting: a randomized controlled trial of factorial design. Br J Anesth 2002; 88:659–68.
83.Gan, TJ, Gu, J, Singla, N, et al. Rolapitant Investigation Group. Rolapitant for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Anesth Analg 2011; 112:804–12.
84.Habib, A, Gan, TJ. The effectiveness of rescue antiemetics after failure of prophylaxis with ondansetron or droperidol: a preliminary report. J Clin Anesth 2005; 17:62–5.
85.Kovac, A, O’Connor, TA, Pearman, MH, et al. Efficacy of repeat intravenous dosing of ondansetron in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. J Clin Anesth 1999; 11:453–9.
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